de-en  Immanuel Kant Hard
Immanuel Kant (Painting by Gottlieb Doebler. Second version for Johann Gottfried Kiesewetter, 1791) Immanuel Kant's signature Immanuel Kant (Born April 22, 1724 in Königsberg, Prussia; Died February 12, 1804 ibid.) was a German philosopher of the Enlightenment. Kant is one of the most important representatives of occidental philosophy. His work "Critique of pure Reason" marks a turning point in the history of philosophy and the beginning of modern philosophy.

Kant created a new, comprehensive perspective in philosophy, which greatly influenced the discussion all the way to the ... 21st century. ... This includes not only his influence on epistemology with the "Critique of Pure Reason", but also on ethics with the "Critique of Practical Reason" and aesthetics with the "Critique of Judgment". Additionally, Kant composed important writings on the philosophy of religion, law and history as well as contributions to astronomy and the geosciences.

Table of Contents 1 Life 2 Philosophy 2.1 Precritical Period 2.2 General Presentation of the Critique of Pure Reason 2.3 Epistemology 2.4 Practical Philosophy 2.4.1 Foundation of Moral Philosophy 2.4.2 Philosophy of Law and Ethics 2.5 History, Enlightenment and Religion Early writings 2.7.2 Anthropological lectures 2.7.3 The theme of the races 2.7.4 Anthropology in pragmatic terms 2.8 "Opus postum" 3 Reception 4 Works 5 Honours 6 Literature 6.1 Introductory 6.2 Biographies 6.3 General 6.4 Critique 6.5 Opus posthumously 6.6 Resources 7 Weblinks 8 Individual records of the life of Kant's monument (sculptor: Christian Daniel Rauch) in his home town of Königsberg, today's Kaliningrad Immanuel (in the baptismal register: Emanuel; Kant's birthday was St. Emmanuel's day in the Prussian calendar) Kant was the fourth child of the saddler and Riemer master Johann Georg Kant[1] (* 1683 in Memel; † 1746 in Königsberg) and his wife Anna Regina (* 1697 in Königsberg; † 1737 ibid. e.), née Reuter, who were married on 13 November 1715. His father had moved to Königsberg as a young man, his mother came from the family of a Riemermeister, who had moved from Nuremberg to Königsberg. Of Kant's eight siblings, only four reached adulthood. A great-grandfather on his father's side probably came from a curious family who had moved from Latvia to Kantwaggen (later Kantweinen) in the Memel Territory. {2] His parental home was strongly pietistic, his mother very open to education. In 1732, Kant came to the Collegium Fridericianum (also called Friedrichskollegium), where he was particularly encouraged in learning the classical languages. He began studying at the Albertus University of Königsberg as early as 1740. Whether he was initially enrolled in theology, as one of the early biographers described it, can no longer be reconstructed from the documents of the university. [3] In any case, Kant was very interested in the natural sciences and, among other things, was interested in philosophy - his actual field of study - as well as natural philosophy and elementary mathematics.

Waldburg-Capustigall Castle, Kant's house in Königsberg.
In 1746 he published his paper, Gedanken von der wahren Schätzung der lebendigen Kräfte (Thoughts on the True Estimation of Living Forces). ... Because of his father's death in 1746 and since this work was not recognized as a thesis by his professor Martin Knutzen, Kant interrupted his studies. He left Königsberg and earned his living as a private tutor, at first till about 1750 for the reformed preacher Daniel Ernst Andersch (acitve between1728 and 1771) in Judtschen near Gumbinnen, a Swiss colony of mostly French-speaking settlers. In 1748 he was listed as godfather in the local church register, in which he is referred as studiosus philosophiae. Later he was a private tutor at the estate of Major Bernhard Friedrich von Hülsen on Groß-Arnsdorf near Mohrungen until about 1753. He found his third position near Königsberg at Waldburg-Capustigall Castle with the Keyserlingk family, which also gave him access to Königsberg's higher society. He taught the two stepsons of Caroline von Keyserling, who mutually admired him his entire life.

In 1754 Kant returned to Königsberg and took up his studies again (Martin Knutzen had meanwhile died). As early as 1755 he published his first important paper, Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens (Allgemeine Naturgeschichte und Theorie des Himmels). In the same year, he also received his postdoctoral qualification with the treatise The First Principles of Metaphysical Knowledge (Die ersten Grundsätze der metaphysischen Erkenntnis) (Nova dilucidatio); in 1755 he became a private lecturer in Königsberg and began an extensive teaching career. His teaching subjects included logic, metaphysics, moral philosophy, natural theology, mathematics, physics, mechanics, geography, anthropology, pedagogy and natural law. His lectures found broad interest. Johann Gottfried Herder, who listened to him from 1762-64, later wrote about the experience: "With grateful joy, I remember from my youth the acquaintance and teaching of a philosopher who was a true teacher of humanity [...] His philosophy awakened my own thinking, and I can imagine almost nothing more exquisite and effective for this than his lecture was". A first application for the Königsberg Chair of Logic and Metaphysics in 1759 was unsuccessful. In 1764 Kant declined an offer for a poetry chair. From 1766 to 1772, Kant worked as a assistant librarian of the Royal Palace Library, which was his first permanent position. Kant also refused the opportunity to teach in 1769 in Erlangen and in 1770 in Jena, before he was appointed professor of logic and metaphysics at the University of Königsberg at the age of 46 in 1770. In the same year he submitted another dissertation, "On the Form and Principles of the Sensible and the Intelligible World". In 1778, he also rejected offer of higher compensation from the then famous University of Halle, despite the special request of the Minister of Culture of Zedlitz. In 1786 and 1788 Kant was rector of the University of Königsberg. In 1787 he was accepted into the Berlin Academy of Sciences. In 1794 he became an honorary member of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg. [4] The last fifteen years of his life were marked by the steadily escalating conflict with the censorship authorities headed by the Prussian King Frederick William II. to the new Minister of Culture Johann Christoph von Woellner - Zedlitz' successor after the death of King Friedrich II. - had transferred.

Kant's memorial in Königsberg, now Kaliningrad, in its first place; in the background the Old Town Church - Three years after Wöllner's censorship edict of December 19, 1788, due to his work "Über das Mißlingen aller philosophischen Versuche in der Theodizee" (On the Failure of All Attempted Philosophical Theodicies) he first came into conflict with censorship. [5] In a further edict of 1794, he was accused of "disparaging some of the principal and basic teachings of Holy Scripture and Christianity." Kant continued to teach until 1796, but was instructed to abstain from religious writings because they spread deist and socinian body of thought that was incompatible with the Bible. Then his friend Johann Erich Beaster, the editor of the Berlin Monthly magazine in Berlin, complained to the king, who refused the complaint.

Kant is often portrayed as a stiff professor, tied to a regular daily routine, who was driven by his duty to concentrate entirely on his work. But this picture is an exaggeration. As a student he was a good card player and earned himself an extra income for his studies with billiards. In social circles in which he willingly participated, he was regarded as gallant, dressed in fashionable clothes and was characterized as having "great erudition and an inexhaustible store of amusing and funny anecdotes, which he told completely dryly without ever even laughing, and knew how to spice up with his own risqué humor in apt rejoinders [...]."[6] Johann Gottfried Herder was asked by Kant not to brood so much about books. And Johann Georg Hamann feared that Kant would not come to work enough because he was "torn away by a maelstrom of social distractions" (quotes from Kühn).

Kant's tomb next to Königsberg Cathedral in Kaliningrad - Even his legendary punctuality, by which other citizens of Königsberg allegedly even set their clocks, is much more likely to have been that of his close friend Joseph Green,[7] the English businessman and banker. His rigorously planned daily routine required Kant to leave Green's House punctually at seven o'clock with every visit. By his own admission in the essay "The Contest of Faculties", Kant first instituted a regular daily routine when he was over 40, and he realized that he had to conserve his strength for reasons of health. However, this was later interpreted by Heinrich Heine in the "History of Religion and Philosophy in Germany" with widespread effect as an expression of rigor. He had himself awakened at 4:45 every morning by his servant with the words "It is time!", and he went bed at 10 o'clock in the evening. For lunch he usually invited friends and liked to socialize, but avoided philosophical themes. He also took a walk every day at the same time. His long-time house servant was the retired soldier Martin Lampe. ...

Kant spent almost his entire life in Königsberg, which was at the time a cosmopolitan city,, where he died in 1804 at the age of almost 80. His last words were allegedly: "It is good" [9] The tomb of Immanuel Kant is on the outside of the cathedral of Königsberg, the so-called Stoa Kantiana.

Philosophy With its critical approach (Sapere aude - Have the courage to use your own mind!) is Kant probably the most important thinker of the German Enlightenment. Normally, one distinguishes between the pre-critical and critical phases of his philosophical development because in the end, his position had changed considerably with the publication of "The Critique of Pure Reason". Even until the 1760s, one can attribute to Kant rationalism in the line of succession of Leibniz and Wolff. Kant himself characterized this time as a "dogmatic slumber". [10] In his (second) dissertation in 1770, a clear break is already evident. In addition to the mind, intuition is also a source of knowledge, whose peculiarity must be observed. To present intellectual knowledge as intuitively accessible is deceptive. His dissertation and appointment to the university led to the famous phase of silence in which Kant developed his new epistemology, known as critical philosophy, and is still being substantially discussed today. Only after eleven years of intensive work was it published in 1781 in the Critique of Pure Reason. After he had answered the question of which conditions were the basis for the possibility of knowledge, finally at the age of 60, Kant could, on this foundation, turn to the subjects that were really important for him: practical philosophy and aesthetics.

Precritical period - Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens, title page of the first edition from 1755 - Until his doctorate in 1755, he worked as a tutor and wrote his first natural philosophical writings, including "Thoughts about the True Estimation of the Living Forces" published in 1749 (Immanuel Kant: AA I, 1-181[11]) and in 1755, the "Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens" (Immanuel Kant: AA I, 215-368[12]), in which he presents a theory on the formation of the planetary system according to "Newtonian principles" (Kant-Laplace theory of planetary formation). In the same year he earned his doctorate with a thesis about fire ("De igne", Immanuel Kant: AA I, 369-384[14] About Fire), in which he developed a theory of the substance of heat; and then for professorship, he presented a habilitation dissertation with a treatise on the first principles of metaphysical knowledge ("Nova dilucidatio", Immanuel Kant: AA I, 385-416[15]), both in Latin.

Kant dealt intensively - as mentioned - with some questions of the natural philosophy of that time, which later recede into the background, but about which he never completely gives up: The "Universal Natural History and Theory of the Heavens" formulates a groundbreaking theory of planetary formation from a primeval nebula. Even though Pierre-Simon Laplace in his Traité de mécanique céleste developed a similar, albeit mathematically elaborated theory in 1799, whose basic features are confirmed today, the Kant-Laplace theory of planetary formation has been discussed since Hermann von Helmholtz.

In 1762, according to some minor writings, the treatise "The only possible argument in support of a demonstration of the existence of God" was published in which Kant tried to prove that all previous proofs for the existence of God were not viable and developed his own version of the ontological proof of God, which is intended to remedy these shortcomings.

The following years were dominated by a growing awareness of the problem with the method of traditional metaphysics, which manifested itself above all in Kant's most entertaining writing, "Dreams of a Spirit-Seer, explained by "Dreams of Metaphysics" (1766), a critique by Emanuel Swedenborg. In the writing De mundi sensibilis atque intelligibilis forma et principiis, published in 1770, for the first time he makes a clear distinction between the sensual knowledge of the phenomena of things (Phaenomena) and the knowledge of things as they are in themselves, through understanding (Noumena). He also sees space and time as "pure views" belonging to the subject, which are necessary in order to order the phenomena among themselves. Thus, two fundamental points of the later critical philosophy are anticipated, even if Kant's method is still dogmatic, and he holds a cognition of the understanding of things as they are intrinsically as possible. However, anyone who presents intellectual knowledge as accessible knowledge is committing the vice of subreptition (vitium subreptionis), the error of misrepresentation. In the following ten years the development of critical philosophy takes place without significant publication (the "silent years").

Kant's questions, according to Kant, are the task of a committed philosophy of answering three questions that lead to a fourth.
What can I know?
What am I to do?
What can I hope?
What is human? ...
The questions are dealt with by epistemology, ethics and philosophy of religion. Kant himself presented a fundamental text on each of these areas in his critical period. Together they answer the question "What is human? in philosophical terms. Kant attempted an empirical answer to this question with reference in his anthropology in a pragmatic way.

General presentation of the Critique of Pure Reason - Critique of Pure Reason, title page of the first edition of 1781 → Main article: Critique of Pure Reason - When Kant published the "Critique of Pure Reason" in 1781, the "Copernican Revolution" in philosophy was complete. For before each ontology Kant discussed how such a science is at all possible.

To this end, the critical method required deduces the general conditions which are underlying and thus a priori determine every action of mind, every knowledge and every perception in advance. The "Critique of Pure Reason" presents these conditions in two sections, the "transcendental aesthetics", in which the views of time and space are dealt with, and the first section of "transcendental logic" (the a priori analysis of concepts and principles). In the second section, "transcendental dialectics", the conclusions of reason are discussed.

Transcendental Aesthetics" introduces the view as the "inner and outer sense" (intuitione pura), not to be confused with sentiment (sensatio). [16] In a formulation by the neo-Kantian philosopher Ernst Cassirer, it is the possibility of being able to think and envision "one thing in addition to another or one thing after another". [17] The pure view of space without any sensuality finds its expression in geometry, that of time in arithmetic (since numbers are only possible through succession). But both are also the conditions of any experience.

It is therefore not necessary - as in Wolffianism - to distinguish between an ideal space of mathematics and a real space of physical interaction. All sensations are only possible under the conditions of spatial or temporal perception.

In transcendental analytics Kant deduced that sensual perception is generated by pure concepts (a priori), the categories. [18] Only through them can sentiments ("a posteriori") be understood as objects of experience.

By applying the categories to space and time, synthetic judgments a priori arise, the principles of the mind (second book of analytics), which equally represent general conditions for experiencable objects, such as, for example that all views are extensive magnitudes. [19] Thus the first possibility of a pure natural science is given.

In a chapter that has been controversial to this day since the publication of "Critique", Kant then presents the purely conceivable, but which will never be anything recognizable, as a "border concept", in philosophical terminology thus as a "problematic concept", since so-called noumena, today mostly referred to only in the singular, which promotes misunderstandings, is at least conceivable. [20] In the attempt of human reason to recognize the unconditional and to transcend sensual knowledge, it becomes entangled in contradictions, since the "transcendental ideas" are inevitable a priori by the conditions themselves, namely the idea of the soul, the idea of the causal world whole and the idea of God. Thus, in "transcendental dialectics" Kant refutes the possibility of ontological proof of this - as well as for the cogito ergo sum of Descartes, which is deciphered as a tautology - but allows a regulatory function to the transcendental ideas. [21] The book was placed on the list of forbidden books by the Vatican in 1827 because of the refutations of the proofs of the existence of God.

But since every effect can also have a cause out of freedom, namely the free decision to cause something which itself is not subject to the laws of nature, in the recourse of the decreasing series of causes (of the universe), as the first and necessarily unconditional cause (for if it were conditional, then the condition would again have a cause, etc.) the freedom of a will can be set as possible.

"Transcendental aesthetics" and the two sections of "transcendental logic" together form the "elementary theory" that follows the "transcendental methodology" in Kant, for example, transcendental proof, deduction, is distinguished from inductive proof.

Epistemology "What can I know?" In his precritical phase Kant was a representative of a revisionist rationalism of the Wolff School. Through his attempts to reconcile the metaphysics of monadology with the natural philosophy of Isaac Newton[22] and ultimately through the study of Hume, however, Kant is awakened from his "dogmatic slumber" (Immanuel Kant: AA IV, 257- Prolegomena[23]). He recognizes Hume's criticism of rationalism as methodologically correct, i.e., a return of knowledge solely to the pure mind without sensual perception is no longer possible for him. On the other hand, David Hume's empiricism leads to the conclusion that a certain knowledge is not possible at all, i.e. into scepticism. However, given the evidence of certain synthetic judgments, Kant considers this untenable a priori - especially in mathematics (such as the a priori certainty of equation 7+5=12) and in (classical) physics. At least, however, Hume's skepticism "struck a [methodical] spark" at which with epistemological "light" could be "ignited". Kant thus raises the question of how knowledge at all and, in particular, knowledge a priori is possible unless it is possible in view of the achievements of mathematics and physics. Under what conditions is cognition possible? Or - as Kant formulated it -: What are the conditions for the possibility of cognition?

The Critique of Pure Reason (CPR), in which Kant formulates his epistemology as the foundation of scientific metaphysics, is therefore an examination of both rationalist and empirist philosophy of the 18th century which faced each other before Kant. At the same time, the CPR comes into conflict with traditional metaphysics, as far as these concepts and models represent the explanation of the world beyond our experience. Against the dogmatism of the rationalists (e.g., Christian Wolff, Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten) states that cognition is not possible without sensual conception, i.e., without perception. What stands against empiricism is that sensual perception remains unstructured if the mind does not add concepts and connects them with perception through judgments and conclusions, i.e., through rules.

For Kant, cognition takes place in judgments. In these judgments the beliefs that come from sensuality are connected with the concepts of the mind (synthesis). Sensuality and reason are the only two equal and interdependent sources of knowledge. "Thoughts without content are empty, opinions without concepts are blind." (Immanuel Kant: AA III, 75- B 75[24]) Illustration on the epistemology of Immanuel Kant - How does experience come about, that is, for cognition of the world? Kant discusses this in Transcendental Analytics, the second part of his critique of pure reason. Before that, however, he determines the sensual basis of perception with transcendental aesthetics. According to Kant, the pure views of space and time differentiate an external sense in which ideas are given to us side by side in space. On the other hand, we have an inner meaning with which we experience ideas as a temporal sequence. The pure views of space and time are thus the forms of all sensual ideas of objects in general because we cannot imagine them without space and time. However, the senses are receptive, i.e., they contain ideas only if they are affected (≈ stimulated) by a conceptually incomprehensible outside world (the thing itself).

Kant does not, however, represent a simple representation theory. After Kant's famous Copernican revolution, we do not recognize the thing itself, but only its appearance, what it is for us. Appearance is that which makes the subject of knowledge the subject of a view given by sensuality recognized (cf. Immanuel Kant: AA III, 50- B 34 [25]). The most general rules under which things, as we perceive them, are the structures of sensuality and the mind and not ontological principles founded in a being per se. Man therefore recognizes on the basis of his own personal cognitive ability and does not know whether this cognition actually has an equivalent in the outside world. Kant explains this "change in the way of thinking" (Immanuel Kant: AA III, 14- B xxii[26]) in the preface to the second edition of the CPR by referring to Copernicus, who explains the visible movement of the planets and fixed stars through the Earth's own movement around its own axis and around the Sun. The viewer is the one turning, not the starry sky. Just as we imagine the world, there are objects whose effect is taken up by the senses - sensuality is affected. However, we notice only the results of this affectation, the sensual perceptions. The manifestations are given to us only as spatial objects. Being spatial is even the condition for their existence. The outside world, if we understand it as the totality of the phenomena, is thereby already a "subjective" idea. Kant calls such empirical views composed of individual elements sensations. Space and time, however, are added to the sensations (of matter) as pure forms of sensual perception. They are pure forms of human perception and do not apply to objects per se. This means that knowledge always depends on the subject. Our reality is the phenomena, i.e. everything that is for us in space and time. According to Kant, the fact that we cannot imagine objects without space and time is due to our limitations and not to the objects themselves. Whether space and time exist in the things themselves, we cannot know.

Appearances alone, however, do not lead to concepts, and certainly not to judgements. At first, they are completely indeterminate. Kant elaborates on this in the section on transcendental logic, which deals with the part of mind in cognition, and which disintegrates into a theory of concepts and judgments. The concepts come from the mind, which spontaneously forms them through the productive imagination according to rules. This requires transcendental self-confidence as the basis of all thinking. The pure consciousness, i.e.,, abstracted from all sensual perceptions of "I think", which can also be described as the self-attribution of the mental, is the linchpin of Kantian epistemology. This self-consciousness is the origin of pure concepts of the mind, of categories. ... Quantity, quality, relation and modality are the four functions of mind by which categories are formed.

Table of categories.
1. Quantity: unity multiplicity allness.
2. The Quality: Reality Negation Limitation.
3. The relation: the inherence and subsistence (substantia et accidens) of the causality and dependency (cause and effect) of the community (interaction between the active and the afflicted).
4. The modality: Possibility - Impossibility Existence - Non-being Necessity - Randomness.
Immanuel Kant: AA III, 93- CPR B 106[27] On the basis of the categories, the mind links the sensations according to so-called schemes with the help of the power of judgement (the ability to subsume under rules). A scheme is the general process of the imagination to give a concept its image; ... For example, I see a four-legged thing on the street. I recognize: this is a dachshund. I know: a dachshund is a dog, is a mammal, is an animal, is a living creature. Schemata are (possibly multi-level) structuring general concepts that cannot be derived from the empirical perception, but originate from the mind, but refer to cognition.

After it has been described how cognition is possible at all, Kant's fundamental question now arises whether we can justify the scientificity of metaphysics. Are there statements from pure intellectual considerations that increase the content of our cognition? Kant formulates the question as follows: Are synthetic cognitions possible a priori?

Kant's answer is "yes". We can gain synthetic cognition a priori through the categories. So are Thus, for example, the categories of substance, causality and interaction are covered under the concept of relation. We can see from the example of causality: In our sensual perception we recognize two consecutive phenomena. However, their connection as cause and effect is beyond our perception. Causality is thought of by us namely with generality and necessity. We understand causality as a basic principle of nature - this also applies in physics today, even if in its foundations it operates with probabilities and fields - because we think of causality in nature as it appears to us. However, Kant clearly restricts this view to the rationalists. Categories without sensual representation are pure form and thus empty (see above ), i.e. their effectiveness requires empirical sensations. This is the limit of our cognition.

So how do metaphysical theories come about? This is a question of reason, which is the part of the mind with which we draw conclusions from terms and judgements. It is in the nature of reason that it strives for ever more far-reaching knowledge and in the end tries to recognize the unconditional or absolute. But then reason leaves the ground of sensually founded knowledge and enters the realm of speculation. It necessarily brings forth the three transcendental ideas immortality (soul), freedom (cosmos) and infinity (God). Kant now shows in dialectics as the science of illusion that the existence of these regulatory principles can neither be proven nor refuted.

For Kant, it is a scandal of philosophy that metaphysics has so far failed to resolve its traditional disputes. His aim is, as it was in mathematics since Thales or in the natural sciences since Galileo, to give metaphysics a method that makes it possible to arrive at lasting statements. The way to do this is to determine the limits of what is recognizable and to reject transcendental claims to knowledge that go beyond what is recognizable. Kant summed up this procedure with the formulation - not unclear outside of its context - that in metaphysics "knowledge must be abolished in order to make room for faith" (Immanuel Kant: AA III, 18- CPR B xxx[28]). The three postulates of practical reason are understood as the subject of "faith".

Due to the hesitant reception and considerable misunderstandings in the first review of the Critique of Pure Reason, Kant published Prolegomena in 1783, which was intended to introduce critical philosophy in a generally understandable way. Kant also returned to questions of natural philosophy, and in 1786 the Metaphysical Foundations of Natural Science was published, which established the foundations of Newtonian physics on the basis of the critical principles, thus developing a theory of forces that lead out of Newtonian natural philosophy and formed the starting point for the natural philosophy of German idealism.

Practical philosophy The foundation of moral philosophy The question: "What should I do" is the fundamental question of Kant's ethics. But an answer to this question was only possible through epistemological investigations in the Critique of Pure Reason, through which Kant had created a theoretical foundation for practical philosophy.

The questions about the foundation of moral philosophy, which are only hinted at in the final chapters of the Critique of Pure Reason, are elaborated by Kant in 1785 in the Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals (FMM). Here the categorical imperative is developed as a fundamental principle of ethics, and the idea of freedom, which was not provable for theoretical reason in the first critique, is now justified as a fundamental and necessary postulate of practical reason. After the revision of individual parts of the Critique of Pure Reason for the second edition in 1787, the Critique of Practical Reason (CprR) appears in 1788, which partly revises the moral-philosophical approach of "Groundwork" in argumentation and further expands it in action theory.

In both writings Kant examines the prerequisites and the possibility of morally binding ought Imperatives. ... Not religion, common sense or empirical practice can answer this question, but only practical reason. Three elements are essential in Kant's considerations on ethics: the concept of good will, the acceptance of freedom of will and the logical form of a categorical imperative, which alone can guarantee the unconditionality of a moral demand. Kant sees the basis of morality in the self-determination of free will through an unconditional principle: "[...] the will is a capacity to choose only that which reason, regardless of inclination, considers practically necessary, i.e. as well, recognizes." - Immanuel Kant: AA IV, 412[29] Kant argues for the view that every human being finds the measure of morality in himself and that he should form the maxim of his actions according to this general principle: "Practical principles are propositions that contain a general determination of the will that has several practical rules under it. They are subjective or maxims if the condition is considered valid only for the will of the subject; objectively, however, or practical laws if those are considered objective, i.e. for the will of every rational being." - Immanuel Kant: AA IV, 19[30] The determination of the rational will by itself alone dictates that the maxim of one's own actions should be aligned with the principle of morality. For the human being, who is not a pure being of reason but at the same time a sensual being, this principle is expressed in the formula of a categorical imperative as an unconditional demand. Kant gives several different formulations of the categorical imperative in the GMM; natural law formula:. "[...] act as if the maxim of your action should become the universal law of nature through your will." (Immanuel Kant: AA IV, 421[31]) General Law Formula:. "[...] act only according to that maxim by which you can at the same time want it to become a general law." (Immanuel Kant: AA IV, 421[32]) Human purpose formula:. "Act in such a way that you never need mankind merely as a means alone, in your person as well as in all other persons, always as an end." (Immanuel Kant: AA IV, 429[33]) Kingdom of Ends formula: "According to this, every rational being must act as if, through his maxims, he would always be a law abiding member in the general Kingdom of Ends. (Immanuel Kant: AA IV, 438[34]). Without freedom, the categorical imperative would be impossible; conversely, freedom can only be proven from the moral law, for it cannot be secured purely theoretically. If human acts according to the moral law, he is independent of sensual, also impulsive influences and therefore not determined by others (heteronomous), but autonomous. Kant believes that he is an autonomous being with human dignity. For Kant, however, human dignity does not presuppose that a person acts morally, but that he is capable of moral action.

Kant developed his understanding of freedom in confrontation with the opinions on freedom of will that were widespread at the time. Hume, for example, claims that man is entirely a natural being wholly subject to the causal chains to which the rest of nature is also subject. Kant, on the other hand, tries to resolve the contradiction between thinking in natural causality chains and the need for free will for morality. In this regard, he considers people from a twofold perspective: for one he sees man as an empirical being, which, like Hume, is subject to the laws of nature. ... At the same time, however, man is also an intelligent being who can orient himself by moral principles and follow the laws given to him by reason itself, and thus at the same time belongs to the "realm of freedom".

For Kant a free will is therefore only a will under moral laws. In his late philosophy of religion, however, Kant then also arrives at a theory on how the decision for evil actions can be reconciled with his understanding of freedom.

Because of its orientation towards the demanding character of the moral imperative, Kant's ethics is, according to its approach, an obligation ethic in contrast to a virtue ethic as Aristotle advocated. Also according to Kant, every person strives inevitably for "happiness", but the diversity of subjective opinions about human happiness does not allow objective laws of eudaimonistic ethics to be derived. Kant subsequently replaces happiness with "worthiness for happiness", which arises from moral behavior. Only when man fulfills his duty is he worthy of happiness. The desire for happiness is not denied nor criticized, but it is disputed by Kant that it should play a role in deciding the question of what is morally necessary. Where Kant does not deal with fundamental questions in his other writings on practical philosophy, but with concrete ethical phenomena, it becomes clear that his ethics are not an empty formalism or a rigorous excessive demand on humans, but rather they make every effort to grasp the diversity of human courses of action.

In human life Kant does not believe that full happiness but only "self-satisfaction" is attainable. By this he understands human satisfaction with the fact that he or she orients his or her actions towards morality. For Kant it is a moral duty to promote the happiness of others through helpfulness and unselfish action in friendship, marriage and family.

In 1793 Kant proclaimed in the preface to the Critique of Judgment that his critical business was concluded with this writing. Henceforth, he wants to move "without delay to the doctrinal" transaction (Immanuel Kant: AA V, 170[35]), i.e., the elaboration of a system of transcendental philosophy. However, religion is still within the bounds of mere reason (1793), in which Kant examines the rational content of religion and further explains the approach of a moral-practical religion of reason, as already developed by the postulated doctrine of the second and third critiques.

In 1797 Kant published the metaphysics of morals as an elaboration of the system, in which he drafted a detailed political philosophy and ethics in the two main sections on jurisprudence and on virtue. Kant derives the legal concept from the necessity of making it sanctionable to violate the civil rights of others. Kant expanded his philosophy of law and the principle of reciprocity developed there in the treatise On Eternal Peace into a League of Nations encompassing all states and peoples: "For if happiness adds to it: that a powerful and enlightened people can form a republic (which by its very nature must be inclined towards eternal peace), thus this is a center of federal unification for other states in order to join them and to secure the state of freedom of states, in accordance with the idea of international law, and to progressively expand through several such links.“ - Immanuel Kant: AA VIII, 356[36] History, Enlightenment and Religion Kant himself believed that reason alone could not provide an answer to his third question "What may I hope? After God, the immortality of the soul and freedom cannot be proven by reason, but neither can reason prove the non-existence of these ideas, the question of the Absolute is a question of faith: "I had to suspend knowledge to make room for faith. (Immanuel Kant: AA III, 18[37]). According to Kant, no divine intention can be found in the course of history. History is an image of the human being who is free. Because of this freedom, no regularities or further developments in history can be recognized more or less in the direction of happiness or perfection because progress is not a necessary prerequisite for action. Nevertheless, one can think of a plan in nature, i.e., imagine that history has a guide (is teleological). If one follows this idea, reason develops in the coexistence of people. For this coexistence man has created the right out of reason, which gradually determines the social order more and more. In the end, this leads to a complete bourgeois constitution, which holds true even if an external legality has arisen between the states. This "history of cosmopolitan intent" gives rise to a political task for the rulers: "But to take this into consideration, just as well as their servants, in order to direct them to the only means that can bring their laudable memory of later times: this can also provide a small motive for attempting such a philosophical history. - Immanuel Kant: AA VIII, 31[38] "What is Enlightenment?" Kant's attitude as a mastermind of the Enlightenment, which he regards as the destiny of man, determined this self-image. His definition is famous: "Enlightenment is the outcome of man's self-inflicted immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to use one's mind without the guidance of another. This immaturity is self-inflicted when the cause of it is not the lack of reason, but the resolution and courage to use it without the guidance of another. Sapere aude [have the courage to use your own mind]! Have courage to use your own mind! is therefore the motto of the Enlightenment." - Answering the question: What is enlightenment? : Berlinische Monatsschrift, 1784,2, p. 481-494 In Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßßen Vernunft (Religion within the Limits of Mere Reason) (1793) Kant writes: "Everything that man can do other than the good way of life, in order to please God, is merely God's religious mania and after-service. - Immanuel Kant: AA VI, 170[39] Kant was optimistic that free thinking, which had developed strongly under Frederick the Great in particular - albeit predominantly in relation to religion - led to a gradual change in the mindset of the people and ultimately influenced the principles of government to treat man, "who is now more than a machine, according to his dignity" (Immanuel Kant: AA VIII, 42[40]). Kant was a strong supporter of the French Revolution and stood by this position, even though he had to contend with sanctions after Friedrich Wilhelm II took over the government. Despite increasing censorship, Kant published his religious writings during this period. God will not be proven after this. But consistent moral action is not possible without the belief in freedom, immortality and God. Therefore, morality is the original and religion declares moral duties as divine commandments. Religion therefore followed the already existing moral law. In order to find the actual duties, one must now filter out what is right from the various religious teachings. Kant criticized ritual church practices as popery. After the publication of the religious publication Die Religion innerhalb der Grenzen der bloßßen Vernunft (Religion within the limits of mere reason) in 1793 and 1794, Kant actually received the prohibition by cabinet order to continue publishing in this sense. [41]Kant bowed down for the king's reign but resumed his position undiminished after his death in the faculty dispute.

In his self-penned obituary of the Königsberg theologian Lilienthal in 1782, Kant summed up his attitude to religion as follows:[42][43] "What follows life is revealed to be profound darkness. We are only certain of what is due to us. For those like Lilienthal, death cannot rob hope, he who believes in order to do right, does right in order to feel joyful." - Immanuel Kant: AA XII, 397[44] Aesthetics and Purposes of Nature. Usually the Critique of Judgment (CoJ) is called Kant's third major work. In this work, published in 1790, Kant attempts to complete his system of philosophy and, on the one hand, establish a connection between the theoretical mind on which the knowledge of nature is based, and, on the other, establish that pure practical reason leads to the recognition of freedom as an idea and moral law. The feeling of lust and displeasure is the link between cognitive ability and desire. The connecting principle is the expedience. This can be seen on the one hand in the aesthetic judgement of the beautiful and sublime (Part I) and on the other in the teleological judgement that determines man's relationship to nature (Part II). In both cases, the power of judgment is not determining, as in the realization where a specific concept is understood under a general concept, but reflecting, which means that the universal is obtained from the individual.

The determination of the aesthetic is a process of subjective judgment, in which an object is given a attribute of how beautiful or sublime it is by the power of judgment. Criteria for pure judgments of taste are that they are made independently of an interest of the judge, that these judgments are subjective, that the judgment continues to claim universal validity and that finally the judgment is made out of necessity. An aesthetic judgment, even if it is thought to be without any interests and without any concepts, contrary to the judgment based on knowledge, is purely subjective; nevertheless, according to Kant, it claims general validity (CoJ, § 8/§ 9). This is only possible if "quasi-knowledge" is available, otherwise universality is inconceivable. This cognitive power arises in the free play of imagination (for the composition of the manifold of perception) and understanding (for the unification of the imagination into concepts), which creates a feeling of pleasure (or displeasure) in the observer of an object and triggers pleasure that we associate with the object that we call "beautiful", although, without this pleasure first triggering the judgment. In this respect, the observer of an object who thinks an aesthetic judgment through pleasure claims that this judgment is valid for everyone and that no discussion can be imagined without it, even if there is no agreement in the opinion (CoJ § 7).

As in ethics, Kant selects the formal criteria of a judgement (the conditions of possibility) and excludes the content-related (material) determination of beauty. When the observer judges an object, something must be present in the object (on the surface) so that this free play of cognitive power is activated and triggers the feeling of pleasure that leads to the judgment of a "beautiful" object. The peculiarity of the judgment based on taste is that, although it is only subjectively valid, it takes advantage of all subjects as if it were an objective judgment based on cognitive grounds.

In contrast to the beautiful, the sublime is not bound to an object and its form: "Sublime is what even thinking can prove a capacity of the mind that surpasses every scale of the senses. Both the beautiful and the sublime are pleasing in themselves. But the sublime produces no feeling of pleasure, but instead admiration and respect. Sublime in art is not possible for Kant, this is at most a poor imitation of the sublime in nature: "That which pleases in mere judgment (i.e., not conveyed to the sensation of the senses according to a concept of the mind) is beautiful. From this it follows by itself that it must be pleasing without any interest. "Sublime is that which immediately pleases through its resistance to the interest of the senses." In teleological judgement, the expediency inherent in nature is considered. The purpose is not a property of objects, but is thought of by us and is placed into the objects; like freedom, it is a regulative idea. The objective natural purpose of an item imagined by reason results from the relationship between the parts and the whole. We cannot explain the structure of a tree and the harmony of natural processes with a pure mechanism. Unlike a clock, a tree is self-reproducing. We see the interrelationships of natural things as if they had a purpose. However, we must avoid wanting to justify the perceived expediency of nature with religion: "So if one introduces the concept of God into science and in its context in order to explain the expediency in nature, and afterwards needs this expediency again in order to prove that God exists: there is no inner existence in either science". - CoJ § 68, Works on Anthropology In addition to the three questions denoting the "transcendental turn", Kant devoted almost forty years to a fourth: "What is man?" The writings on this subject, however, are not those of philosophical anthropology as it was elaborated in the 20th century, but rather fall into the scientific fields of psychology, ethnology, ethnography, cultural anthropology and historical anthropology. Although these works have found no direct expression in the transcendental philosophical works, they form an essential background for Kant's thinking. For a long time, however, research into Kant considered this to be of secondary importance. It was only in the last quarter of the last century that groundbreaking studies began to explore this subject area in an exegetically appropriate manner.

Early writings - Kant's early publications in these fields were Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime (1764), Investigation Concerning Diseases of the Head (1764), On the Different Races of Man (1775) and Definition of the Concept of a Human Race (1785). Also to be counted are the writing Alleged Beginning of Human History (1786) and parts of the religious-philosophical works. The late work Anthropology from a Pragmatic Point of View (1798) can be seen in part as a summary of these works and is based above all on the last anthropology lecture in the winter semester of 1795/96. Kant was not interested in physiological anthropology, i.e., "what nature makes of man", but rather the question "what he makes or can and should make out of himself as a free-acting being."[45] Anthropological lectures - The lectures on anthropology as a new subject at the university, after Kant had already introduced physical geography there in 1755, began in the winter semester of 1772/73 and were held 24 times over the course of almost two decades. Since Kant always lectured freely and the lectures were based only on notes, the exact text is no longer known, but on the basis of the drafts and some surviving transcripts by his students (including Herder), a reconstruction was included in the New Edition of the Academic Edition in 1992. [46] Kant looked at the lectures on "What is man?" - which also include pedagogy - "as a propaedeutics for the transition of the university to an institution of teaching world wisdom, which had more to do with the general knowledge of human nature than a methodology of reasons for it. The lectures should also be entertaining and stimulating. In addition to relevant philosophical works (Montesquieu, Hume), Kant primarily processed current literature and travel reports, thus developing his ideas on the basis of the reports of third parties, combined with his own observations and reflections, in order to draw as comprehensive an image of man as possible.

The topic of the races In the short treatises - From the different races of humans (in the original scarcely 20 pages) and definition of the concept of human race (scarcely 30 pages), basically comparable thoughts are presented, namely that "all humans in the wide world belong to one and the same natural type" and "presumably to one tribe", there are however different races, which is essentially established with the different skin colors. [47] Both writings speak of four of them, which "in connection with the natural causes of their origin" - are meant the aforementioned climatic conditions - "can be brought under the following breakdown," whereupon, as so-called "genus", firstly, "whites of brunette color", then, as the first, second, third and fourth race, "high blondes", "copper reds", "blacks" and "olive yellows" are named. [48] The second writing also states: "One can assume four class distinctions of men in terms of skin color"[49], and it is reaffirmed: "The class of the whites is not differentiated as a special species in the human species from that of the blacks; and there are no different kinds of men. This would deny the unity of the tribe from which they could have sprung; for which, as has been proved by the inevitable inheritance of their classical characters, there is no reason, but rather a very important converse."[50] The assignment of all humans to only one species, one species and one strain is to counter the interpretation of (pseudo)biological racism, which was occasionally raised[51], whereby the necessity of the exegesis of the concept of the class of humans to be distinguished from it emerges. In his reply to Georg Forster's objections in the fall of 1786, Kant already points out the special meaning in which he wants the term understood: "What is a race? The word is not in system of nature description, so probably the thing itself isn't everywhere in nature. (...) The character of the race can therefore be sufficient to classify creatures accordingly, but not to make a special species from it because this could also mean a strange lineage, which we do not want understand as the name of a race." Kant explains that he wants to take the race as progenies classifica, and this class "not in the broad sense" but "for classification with a completely different purpose". [52] The principles paragraphed in the ethical work can also be used to adequately explore the above question, such as the fact that the same world citizenship right (ius cosmopoliticum) applies to all people as this is also pointed out at the end of anthropology.

However, from today's perspective, many of Kant's empirical statements on ethnology are untenable and characterized by only indirect knowledge of the subject, which all too often adopts Eurocentric representations of the cultures of the world, simplifies them and readily attributes them to the respective peoples as characteristics.

Thus the evaluation contained in the fourth section of the Observations on the Feeling of the Beautiful and Sublime and in the book On the Use of Teleological Principles in Philosophy (1788) is essentially based on the characteristic of cultural evidence to the detriment of African and American peoples, and it is precisely in this area that it can hardly be denied that Kant lacks knowledge, not only in comparison with the current state of knowledge in African and American Studies. In the tradition of "climate theory", which dates back to antiquity and was widespread in the 18th century, Kant regarded geographical and climatic conditions as the cause, since it is difficult to state "another reason why this race, too weak for hard work, too indifferent to be industrious and unfit for all culture, for which there are certainly sufficient examples and encouragement, still stands deeply beneath the negro race itself, which nevertheless occupies the lowest of all the other levels, which we have called racial differences."[53](However, in a diachronic analysis, connotations of the cited Latin word for "blacks", now "Africans", originating after 1788 must be considered as such).

Anthropology in pragmatic terms. Although Kant pragmatically describes anthropology as the handbook for his corresponding lectures, the division of people into classes is no longer to be found in it. Since it has no methodological parallels, the view quoted in Kant's work is thus usually only evaluated as evidence of cultural-philosophical arrogance - although it is also backward for its time.

The addition of the "pragmatic aspect" in the title of anthropology seems both programmatic and ambiguous in research. In the drafts of the anthropology lectures from the 1770s it is called dark: "Pragmatic is the knowledge from which a general use can be made in society."[54] And in those from the 1780s: "Pragmatic anthropology should not be (...) psychology, nor physiology of the doctor, in order to explain the memory of the brain, but human knowledge (sic)"[55]. The vague definition of a pragmatic anthropology, in which this is determined only in demarcation to physical and speculative sciences, contributes to the difficulty of classifying the work methodically. Although the association with the term from Kantian ethics is obvious, it is called into question in the only standard commentary to date: "However, it is unlikely that Kant was inspired by the use of words in morality to describe his anthropology as pragmatic."[56] After long neglect of the subject, Kant's research initially took the opposite path, interpreting the entire critical philosophy as anthropology, which nevertheless seemed too bold to assert itself. [57] The interpretation of the "Transcendental Anthropology" mentioned marginally by Kant to be realized in this late work[58] and to "thereby give it a systematic place in transcendental philosophy" was also rejected as being doomed to be rejected by content that hardly corresponded to such a view. [59] Content: The first part, Anthropological Didactics, deals with the cognitive ability (first book) of pleasure and displeasure (second book) and desire (third book). In it, fundamental concepts of transcendental thought are repeated, but only in summary and rather incidentally. Vielmehr benutzt Kant die Möglichkeit, jenseits der strengen methodischen Systematik auf allgemein menschliche Themen einzugehen, etwa auf die Ohnmacht, den Rausch, die Wahrsagerei, aber auch auf das Prinzip der Assoziation oder auf das Bezeichnungsvermögen (facultas signatrix), dessen Mangel in der kritischen Philosophie später hervorgehoben wurde (erstmals von Johann Georg Hamann). What is clear is the aforementioned relaxed style, which gives an idea of the often delivered talent with which Kant entertained table parties and which can be called anecdotal. On the mysticism of numbers and their power on reasoning: "So if the Emperor of China were to have a fleet of 9999 ships, and one cryptically asks oneself why this number: why not one more? though the answer could be: "because this number of ships is sufficient for his use."[60] In the second part, the anthropological characteristic, characteristics are discussed and how humans can develop them. In so doing, Kant addresses the individual, the gender differences, the peoples, this time reducing the view of races to just one page and devoting himself to the species of human beings as a whole. In a short rather feuilletonistic style in what Kant himself calls "portraits", he ascribes different characteristics for the French, English, Spanish, Italian and German nationalities. Further topics are the traditional doctrine of temperaments, the question of the predisposition of characteristics (inheritance) and the "way of thinking". Kant saw women as emotional and taste-oriented and less rational than men.

In the end, Kant compares humans with bees, since both live in organized communities, but concludes the comparison with the reference to the connection between freedom and law, which characterizes the human species and needs a third factor, namely violence (in the sense of the executive). Since freedom and law without such violence merely yield to anarchy, this third factor is therefore necessary to justify bourgeois constitutions. These should be guided by the regulatory idea of a "cosmopolitan society" (cosmopolitanism). [61] To decide on the significance of anthropological writings in comparison with the methodological critical work must be left to future studies, but it can be said that too many reflections in them are superficial and doubtful and thus will have contributed to them that the enterprise had no tangible success in making the university the institution of the applicable knowledge of human nature.

"Opus postum", Kant's attempt to further develop natural philosophy according to transcendental philosophy has remained unfinished. After 1790, while still working on the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant began work on a "transition from the initial metaphysical reasons for physics". He worked on this work until his death in 1804. The manuscripts from this period were summarized in an "opus postumum"[62] and have only been easily accessible to the public since 1935. 63] These manuscripts show that Kant was still willing and able to transform critical philosophy even in his old age.

Necessity of sensual experience. Starting from the problem of justifying specific regulatory research maxims in the natural sciences - especially physics, chemistry and biology - Kant first feels compelled to examine the role of the senses of the human body in knowledge more closely.

"There can be no experience or conclusion on the subject of empty space. ... To be taught about the existence of matter, I need the influence of matter on my senses." - Immanuel Kant: AA XXI, 216[64]. Infinite ether or heat substance. A substantial part of the concepts of the "Opus postumum" is the proof of an ether[65], which Kant - as already mentioned about four decades earlier (1755) in his master's thesis entitled "de igne"[66] - also called heat substance.

"It is a substance which spreads in all of space as a continuum and penetratingly fills all bodies uniformly (thus is not subject to any change of place) and which one may now call ether or heat substance, etc. is not a hypothetical substance (to explain certain phenomena and to more or less seemingly imagine causes for given effects) but can be recognized a priori and postulated as a fragment belonging to the transition from the initial metaphysical basis of the natural sciences to physics.". - Immanuel Kant: AA XXI, 218[67] Unfinished "Hauptwerk". The problem of these investigations - which Kant calls his "Hauptwerk" or "chef d'œuvre" in private circles[68][69], - shifts in the course of the designs to ever more abstract levels, however, so that Kant returns around 1800 to a systematic level that corresponds to the critique of pure reason, even if not necessarily to its problem (which is difficult to recognize due to the state of the manuscript). [70] Kant developed a "self-setting doctrine", which he then eventually extended to practical reason, and ended with designs for a newly conceived "system of transcendental philosophy", which he could no longer elaborate further.

Reception. Immanuel Kant, black and white illustration of a portrait of V. C. Vernet (c. 1800). Immanuel Kant after F. L. Lehmann (died 1848), academic engraver at the University of Königsberg (c. 1836).
Kant was already considered an outstanding philosopher during his lifetime, so that a veritable Kantianism had already developed in the 90s of the 18th century. The pioneers are Johann Schulz, Karl Leonhard Reinhold and Friedrich Schiller. Critical statements were also quickly made by rationalist representatives of the enlightenment. Thus Moses Mendelssohn called Kant one who crushes everything, or Johann August Eberhard even founded his own journal, in which he published his critique, to which Kant explicitly referred in the paper Über eine Entdeckung (On a Discovery), according to which any new Critique of Pure Reason is rendered superfluous by an older one.

Kant with mustard pot, caricature by Friedrich Hagermann (1801). The criticism of Johann Georg Hamann and Johann Gottfried Herder, who accused Kant of neglecting language as an original source of knowledge, was of greater importance. Herder also pointed out that man even "metaschematizes" in the course of perception, which already anticipated insights of Gestalt psychology. Another fundamental approach of criticism came from Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, who collided with the division of the two sources of cognition and therefore rejected "the thing in itself". ...

A second phase of the discussion started with German idealism and here initially with Kant's pupil Fichte, who also rejected perception as a source of knowledge and thus came to his subjective idealism. He disparagingly commented on Kant's negative reaction. Likewise, Schelling and Hegel wanted to overcome and complete Kant through their absolute systems. Hegel's death brought an abrupt end to idealism, but not with regard to its subsequent treatment.
Arthur Schopenhauer considered himself Kant's most important pupil. He abhorred the competition between Hegel and his school and adopted Kant's theory of cognition in his main work "Die Welt als Wille und Vorstellung" (The World as Will and Imagination), but identified "the thing in itself" with the "will". Max Stirner's and Friedrich Nietzsche's reactions are negative to both Hegel, whose absolutism they rejected, and to Kant himself, because they sought a way out of the disillusioning cognition of the limited possibilities of human action ("finiteness of man"), without support from a comprehensible God, even without the certainty of freedom.

The text corpus of further philosophical, critical and polemical Kant literature between 1775 and 1845 was compiled in the publication series Aetas Kantiana.

Kant and his table mates, paintings by Emil Doerstling (1892/93) A third way of reception (Eine dritter Weg der Rezeption) began with Jakob Friedrich Fries, Johann Friedrich Herbart and Hermann von Helmholtz, who received Kant from a scientific - especially psychological - point of view. With Otto Liebmann, Newkantianism began to unfold its impact in the second half of the 19th century, which was to dominate the discussion until the First World War. The main representatives in the Marburg School were Hermann Cohen and Paul Natorp with a strongly science-oriented approach and in the Baden School Heinrich Rickert and Wilhelm Windelband with a focus on value philosophy and history. What they all have in common is the criticism of the central concept a priori, which they regarded as a metaphysical element in Kant's work. Their position was at least closely related in many respects to idealism. This was different in the criticism of Alois Riehl and his student Richard Hönigswald, who leaned closely on Kant and merely strove for a continuation taking into account the insights of modern science. Hans Vaihinger went his own way with the "Als Ob" (As If) philosophy and the former Marburg-born Nicolai Hartmann with an ontology of critical realism and Ernst Cassirer with the philosophy of symbolic forms. The latter showed, among other things, that modern mathematical and scientific theories such as the theory of relativity can also be reconciled with the critique.
In the 20th century there are no more Kant schools, but nevertheless (almost) every philosophy is a discussion or a dialogue with Kant. This reaches from Charles S. Peirce to Georg Simmel, Edmund Husserl, Karl Jaspers, Max Scheler, Martin Heidegger, Ernst Bloch to Theodor Adorno and Karl Popper as well as in analytical philosophy[71] to Peter Frederick Strawson with a highly regarded commentary on the Critique of Pure Reason and John McDowell's Reintroduction of Kantian Motifs in his work Geist und Welt (Spirit and World). Constructivism in Erlangen is closely based on Kant. Kant is also an important point of reference in Karl-Otto Apel's approach to the transformation of transcendental philosophy or in Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker's work. Lyotard refers in his aesthetics to Kant's term of the sublime. In the 2th half of the century, a group of philosophers emerged, who again directly linked their philosophical positions to Kant in the sense of critical rationality, such as Helmut Holzhey, Dieter Henrich, Gerold Prauss, Norbert Hinske, Herbert Schnädelbach, Reinhard Brandt or Otfried Höffe. There are also corresponding representatives in the USA, such as Paul Guyer, Henry E. Allison and Christine Korsgaard. The revival of deontological ethics, which received considerable impetus from John Rawls' theory of justice, should be emphasized. It is also the basis of the discourse ethics developed by Apel and Jürgen Habermas as well the discourse theory of Robert Alexy's law. But also in aesthetics and in the philosophy of religion intensive discourses with and about Kant take place. For the brothers Gernot and Hartmut Böhme Kant's theory of cognition stands for a problematic approach to the world, for the idealization of an autonomous reason that is increasingly alienated from nature and from its own body and feelings. In their book "The Other of Reason" (Das Andere der Vernunft) the authors try to make the costs of this strategy of self-control visible and to make the side of loss speak for itself. [72] Kant is still the most widely received philosopher in the present day. This can be seen in more than 1000 monographs and essay collections published in his 200th year of death in 2004 as well as in 1100 participants at the congress "Kant and the Berlin Enlightenment" in 2000 (IX International Kant Congress in Berlin). There are the Kant studies founded in 1896 by Hans Vaihinger with approximately 25 papers per year as a forum for the Kant Society in Halle/Saale, founded in 1904 in the 100th year of death, the Kant Research Centre at the University of Mainz, a Bonn project for the electronic publication of Kant's writings and the Marburg Kant Archive, which continues to work on the completion of the Academy edition. Japan also has its own Kant-society. In Tokyo, in the Temple of Philosophers, a picture entitled, The Four Wise Men depicting Buddha, Confucius, Socrates and Kant has been hanging for over 100 years.
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Immanuel Kant (Gemälde von Gottlieb Doebler.
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April 1724 in Königsberg, Preußen; † 12.
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Februar 1804 ebenda) war ein deutscher Philosoph der Aufklärung.
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Kant zählt zu den bedeutendsten Vertretern der abendländischen Philosophie.
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Kant schuf eine neue, umfassende Perspektive in der Philosophie, welche die Diskussion bis ins 21.
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Jahrhundert maßgeblich beeinflusst.
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Reuter, die am 13.
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November 1715 geheiratet hatten.
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Von Kants insgesamt acht Geschwistern erreichten nur vier das Erwachsenenalter.
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[2] Sein Elternhaus war stark pietistisch geprägt, seine Mutter für Bildung sehr aufgeschlossen.
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Bereits 1740 begann er mit dem Studium an der Albertus-Universität Königsberg.
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Schloss Waldburg-Capustigall Das Wohnhaus Kants in Königsberg.
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1746 veröffentlichte er seine Schrift Gedanken von der wahren Schätzung der lebendigen Kräfte.
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Er verließ Königsberg und verdiente sich seinen Lebensunterhalt als Hauslehrer, zunächst bis ca.
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Seine Vorlesungen fanden starkes Interesse.
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Einen Ruf auf einen Lehrstuhl für Dichtkunst lehnte Kant 1764 ab.
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1786 und 1788 war Kant Rektor der Universität in Königsberg.
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1787 wurde er in die Berliner Akademie der Wissenschaften aufgenommen.
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1794 wurde er Ehrenmitglied der Russischen Akademie der Wissenschaften in Sankt Petersburg.
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– übertragen hatte.
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Doch dieses Bild ist eine Überzeichnung.
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Als Student war er ein guter Kartenspieler und verdiente sich mit Billard ein Zubrot zum Studium.
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Außerdem machte er täglich zur gleichen Zeit einen Spaziergang.
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Sein langjähriger Hausdiener war der ausgemusterte Soldat Martin Lampe.
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ist Kant der wohl wichtigste Denker der deutschen Aufklärung.
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Kant selber charakterisierte diese Zeit als „dogmatischen Schlummer“.
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[10] In seiner (zweiten) Dissertation im Jahre 1770 ist bereits ein deutlicher Bruch erkennbar.
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Verstandeserkenntnis als anschauliche auszugeben, ist Erschleichung.
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Was kann ich wissen?
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unit 90
Was soll ich tun?
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unit 91
Was darf ich hoffen?
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unit 92
Was ist der Mensch?
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unit 93
unit 94
unit 95
Gemeinsam beantworten sie die Frage „Was ist der Mensch?“ in philosophischer Hinsicht.
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Beide sind aber auch die Bedingungen jeder Erfahrung.
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B., dass alle Anschauungen extensive Größen sind.
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unit 112
[19] Damit ist die erste Möglichkeit einer reinen Naturwissenschaft gegeben.
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unit 118
die Freiheit eines Willens als möglich gesetzt werden.
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unit 120
B. den transzendentalen Beweis, die Deduktion, vom induktiven unterscheidet.
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unit 128
Unter welchen Bedingungen ist also Erkenntnis überhaupt möglich?
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unit 129
Oder – wie Kant es formuliert –: Was sind die Bedingungen der Möglichkeit von Erkenntnis?
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unit 131
Jahrhunderts, die sich vor Kant gegenüberstanden.
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unit 133
Gegen den Dogmatismus der Rationalisten (z.
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unit 136
Für Kant erfolgt Erkenntnis in Urteilen.
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unit 140
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unit 143
Wir haben andererseits einen inneren Sinn, mit dem wir Vorstellungen als zeitliche Abfolge erleben.
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unit 146
Kant vertritt aber keine simple Abbildtheorie.
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unit 149
Immanuel Kant: AA III, 50– B 34[25]) erkennt.
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unit 153
Der Zuschauer ist derjenige, der sich dreht, nicht der Sternenhimmel.
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unit 155
Wir bemerken allerdings nur die Ergebnisse dieser Affektion, die sinnlichen Anschauungen.
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unit 156
Die Erscheinungen werden uns nur als räumliche Gegenstände gegeben.
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unit 157
Das Räumlich-Sein ist sogar die Bedingung ihrer Existenz.
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unit 159
Solche aus einzelnen Elementen zusammengesetzten empirischen Anschauungen nennt Kant Empfindungen.
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unit 161
Sie sind reine Formen der menschlichen Anschauung und gelten nicht für Gegenstände an sich.
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unit 162
Dies bedeutet, dass Erkenntnis immer vom Subjekt abhängig ist.
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unit 163
Unsere Realität sind die Erscheinungen, d. h. alles was für uns in Raum und Zeit ist.
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unit 165
Ob Raum und Zeit in den Dingen an sich existieren, können wir nicht wissen.
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unit 166
Erscheinungen allein führen aber noch nicht zu Begriffen, und erst recht nicht zu Urteilen.
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unit 167
Sie sind zunächst völlig unbestimmt.
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unit 170
Hierzu bedarf es des transzendentalen Selbstbewusstseins als Grundlage allen Denkens.
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unit 172
Dieses Selbstbewusstsein ist der Ursprung reiner Verstandesbegriffe, der Kategorien.
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unit 174
Tafel der Kategorien.
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unit 175
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unit 176
Der Quantität: Einheit Vielheit Allheit.
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unit 177
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unit 178
Der Qualität: Realität Negation Limitation.
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unit 179
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unit 181
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unit 184
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B. sehe ich auf der Straße ein vierbeiniges Etwas.
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unit 186
Ich erkenne: dies ist ein Dackel.
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unit 187
Ich weiß: ein Dackel ist ein Hund, ist ein Säugetier, ist ein Tier, ist ein Lebewesen.
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unit 190
Gibt es aus reinen Verstandesüberlegungen Aussagen, die unsere Erkenntnisse inhaltlich vermehren?
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unit 191
Kant formuliert die Frage wie folgt: Sind synthetische Erkenntnisse a priori möglich?
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unit 192
Kants Antwort ist „Ja“.
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unit 193
Wir können durch die Kategorien synthetische Erkenntnisse a priori gewinnen.
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unit 194
So sind z.
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unit 197
Deren Verknüpfung als Ursache und Wirkung entzieht sich aber unserer Wahrnehmung.
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unit 198
Kausalität wird von uns gedacht und zwar mit Allgemeinheit und Notwendigkeit.
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unit 200
Allerdings schränkt Kant diese Auffassung gegen die Rationalisten klar ein.
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unit 201
Kategorien ohne sinnliche Anschauung sind reine Form und damit leer (s.
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unit 202
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unit 203
), d. h. zu ihrer Wirksamkeit bedarf es der empirischen Empfindungen.
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unit 204
Hier liegt die Grenze unserer Erkenntnis.
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unit 205
Wie kommt es nun zu den metaphysischen Theorien?
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unit 215
unit 231
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Als autonomes Wesen verfügt er nach Kants Auffassung über Menschenwürde.
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unit 243
Ein freier Wille ist für Kant also nur ein Wille unter sittlichen Gesetzen.
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unit 248
Nur wenn der Mensch seine Pflicht erfüllt, ist er der Glückseligkeit würdig.
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unit 261
Geschichte ist ein Abbild des Menschen, der frei ist.
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unit 264
Folgt man dieser Vorstellung, so entwickelt sich Vernunft im Zusammenleben der Menschen.
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unit 269
Unmündigkeit ist das Unvermögen, sich seines Verstandes ohne Anleitung eines anderen zu bedienen.
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unit 271
Sapere aude [wage es verständig zu sein]!
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unit 272
Habe Muth, dich deines eigenen Verstandes zu bedienen!
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unit 273
ist also der Wahlspruch der Aufklärung.“ – Beantwortung der Frage: Was ist Aufklärung?
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unit 276
durchaus mit Sanktionen rechnen musste.
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unit 277
Trotz zunehmender Zensur veröffentlichte Kant in dieser Zeit seine religiösen Schriften.
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unit 278
Gott lässt sich diesennach nicht beweisen.
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unit 281
Die Religion folgte also dem bereits vorhandenen Moralgesetz.
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unit 283
Rituelle kirchliche Praktiken kritisierte Kant als Pfaffentum.
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unit 287
Was uns zu tun gebührt, des sind wir nur gewiß.
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unit 291
Das verbindende Prinzip ist die Zweckmäßigkeit.
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unit 304
Aber das Erhabene erzeugt kein Gefühl der Lust, sondern Bewunderung und Achtung.
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unit 306
Hieraus folgt von selbst, dass es ohne alles Interesse gefallen müsse.
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unit 311
Im Gegensatz zu einer Uhr ist ein Baum selbst reproduzierend.
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unit 312
Wir sehen die Zusammenhänge der Naturdinge so als ob ein Zweck darin läge.
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unit 323
Auch sollten die Vorlesungen unterhaltsam und nie trocken sein.
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unit 335
In der Tradition der aus der Antike stammenden und im 18.
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unit 359
Die Arbeit an diesem Werk beschäftigt ihn bis zu seinem Tod 1804.
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unit 370
Jahrhunderts ein regelrechter Kantianismus entstand.
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unit 378
Die negative Reaktion Kants kommentierte er abfällig.
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unit 381
Arthur Schopenhauer betrachtete sich selbst als wichtigsten Schüler Kants.
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unit 386
Mit Otto Liebmann begann der Neukantianismus in der 2.
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unit 387
Hälfte des 19.
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unit 391
Ihre Position war in vielem dem Idealismus zumindest eng verwandt.
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unit 395
Im 20.
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unit 398
Der Erlanger Konstruktivismus lehnt sich eng an Kant an.
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unit 400
Lyotard bezieht sich in seiner Ästhetik auf Kants Begriff des Erhabenen.
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unit 401
In der 2.
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unit 409
[72] Kant ist auch in der Gegenwart der am meisten rezipierte Philosoph.
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unit 410
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Internationaler Kant-Kongress in Berlin).
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unit 413
Es gibt die 1896 von Hans Vaihinger begründeten Kant-Studien mit jährlich ca.
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unit 414
25 Abhandlungen als Forum der 1904 im 100.
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unit 416
Auch in Japan gibt es eine eigene Kant-Gesellschaft.
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