en-fr  National Museum of Sudan
National Museum of Sudan Sudan National Museum (8625532907).jpg Main entrance of the National Museum of Sudan National Museum of Sudan is located in SudanNational Museum of Sudan Location of the National Museum in Khartoum, Sudan Wikimedia | © OpenStreetMap Established 1971 Location El Neel Avenue, Khartoum, Sudan Coordinates 15.606°N 32.508°E Type Archaeological collection of different epochs of Ancient Sudan and Ancient Egypt Website Sudan National Museum Statue of Pharaoh Taharqo The National Museum of Sudan or Sudan National Museum, abbreviated SNM, is a double storied building constructed in 1955 and established as a museum in 1971. Le bâtiment et les jardins environnants abritent la collection archéologique nubienne la plus grande et la plus complète du monde, comprenant des objets du paléolithique à la période islamique provenant de tous les sites importants du Soudan. [1] In particular it houses collections of these periods of the History of Sudan: Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, A-Group culture, C-Group culture, Kerma Culture, Middle Kingdom of Egypt, New Kingdom of Egypt, Napata, Meroë, X-Group culture and medieval Makuria.

Le musée est situé sur l'avenue El Neel (le long du Nil) à Khartoum, dans la région d'Al-Mugran, près de l'endroit où le Nil Blanc et le Nil Bleu se rencontrent. Sommaire 1 Collection 1.1 Le rez-de-chaussée 1.2 Le premier étage 1.3 Le jardin du musée 1.3.1 Les temples déplacés du lac Nasser 1.3.2 Les rochers inscrits 1.3.3 Tabo colossi 1.4 L'allée monumentale 2 Voir aussi 3 Références Collection - Les objets du musée sont exposés dans quatre zones: La salle principale au rez-de-chaussée - La galerie au premier étage - Le musée en plein air dans le jardin - L’allée monumentale à l’extérieur du bâtiment du musée LE REZ_DE_CHAUSSEE : *Statue de Taharqo Une statue de granit de 4 mètres de haut du pharaon Taharqo, avant-dernier pharaon de la 25ème dynastie, faisant face à l'entrée principale accueille les visiteurs du musée. La statue a été brisée par les Egyptiens lors du pillage de Napata en 591 av. J-C. sous le règne de Psammetico II, puis enterrée dans un puits par les prêtres de Kush et retrouvée plus tard par George Reisner en 1916. [5] Céramique bruni néolithique à bout noir et statuettes de bélier de la culture du groupe C.
Funerary artefacts and ceramic art.
*Stèle du Amenemhat chef de Teh-khet, trouvée à Debeira Ouest *Artefacts du Moyen Empire d'Egypte et du Nouvel Empire d'Egypte de la région de la troisième cataracte comme Sai, Soleb, Sedeinga et Kawa.
Une figurine avec les jambes arquées de la déesse naine Beset, au corps dodu et aux traits étranges du visage: elle a un grand nez plat et une large bouche encadrée par une crinière de lion et des oreilles de lion rondes. Peu fréquent dans l'art égyptien, Beset est représenté de front plutôt que de profil. She appears grasping an undulating snake in her 3-digit left hand indicating to control hostile forces. She is the protector of mothers and new-born children. *Les époques Napata et Meroë du royaume de Kush incluant la 25ème dynastie: matériel funéraire, statue de granit du roi Aspelta, statue d'un roi méroïtique inconnu représenté comme archer et artéfacts des sites les plus représentatifs comme Méroé, Musawwarat es-Sufra et Naqa.

Kerma Culture jug with a beak in the shape of a hippopotamus head Stela of the chief of Teh-khet, Amenemhat Female Demon Beset Bronze with gold statue of a Meroitic king as an archer Beginning of CE sandstone-carved Meroitic statue raising its left arm The first floor Wall paintings from the Christian Faras Cathedral dated between the 9th and the 13th century, detached during the UNESCO Salvage Campaign.
The catalogue of Greek and Coptic inscriptions, produced primarily by the Christian culture of Nubia, was the scholarly contribution of Adam Lajtar from the Warsaw University in respect of Greek inscriptions and Jacques Van der Vliet of the Leiden University in respect of Coptic inscriptions. The inscriptions contain Nubian funerary epitaphs. The sites of these inscriptions are from Nubian territory in Sudan extending from Faras in the north to Soba in the south. The texts are inscribed on sandstone, marble or terracotta (36 inscriptions, mostly from Makuria ) plaques of generally rectangular shape. [7] Fresco of Faras cathedral The story from Daniel and of the three youths thrown into the furnace.

LE JARDIN DU MUSEE - Les temples déplacés du lac Nasser - Dans le jardin du musée sont reconstruits des temples et des tombeaux transférés de la zone de submersion du lac Nasser. Le barrage d'Assouan, construit sur le Nil en Égypte, a créé un réservoir dans la région de Nubie, qui s'est étendu au territoire soudanais, menaçant de submerger les anciens temples. Pendant la campagne de sauvetage de l'UNESCO, les temples et les tombeaux suivants ont été reconstruits dans le jardin du musée selon la même orientation de leur emplacement d'origine, entourant un cours d'eau artificiel, symbolisant le Nil : *Quelques vestiges du temple d'Aksha dédié à Amon et à Ramsès II lui-même. Une partie du pylône a été préservée avec le pharaon adorant le dieu dynastique Amon et quelques éléments secondaires détaillant les peuples soumis.
*Le temple d'Hatchepsout de Buhen dédié à Horus. Horus avec à tête de faucon, ancêtre mythique de tous les pharaons, et Hatchepsout apparaissant comme un roi, jamais comme une femme.
*Le temple de Kumma dédié au Khnoum avec à tête de bélier, le dieu de les cataractes du Nil.
*Le tombeau du prince nubien Djehuti-hotep à Debeira *Le temple de Semna dédié à Dedwen et au Sésostris III déifié. Les reliefs érodés de ce temple ont été sculptés sur une longue période, de sorte que les scènes sont fragmentées.
*Les colonnes de granit de la cathédrale de Faras. - Le temple d'Aksha: le pharaon adorant Amon - Le temple de Buhen - Temple de Kumma: Khnoum avec à tête de bélier (à gauche) et Thoutmosis III (au centre) courant vers Hathor (à droite) lui offrant un vanneau - Tempio di Semna: Une sculpture du Nouvel Empire montre une effigie de Sésostris III sur un bateau. - Roches gravées - Fragments d'inscriptions des zones submergées du Nil insérées dans de fausses roches, y compris un nilomètre avec le nom de la reine Sobekneferu.
Au bord du ruisseau artificiel, deux statues de grenouilles méroïtiques de 60 cm de hauteur de Basa, représentant la déesse de l'eau Heket, ainsi que Beset was the protectrice des femmes enceintes et des nouveau-nés.

A Tabo coloss The Tabo colossi Outside the museum building are set up two granite unfinished colossi from Tabo of the Argo Island. Due to missing inscriptions they cannot be assigned to any person but they have Roman influence.

The Monumental Alley The lane leading from the museum car parking to the exhibition halls is flanked with meroitic statues of 2 rams and 6 dark sandstone men-eating lions. The lions are from the first century BCE, as shown by the two cartouches from king Amanikhabale engraved on the first lion on the right. As well as the frogs the lions were brought from Basa and represent the warlike lion-god Apedemak.


Meroitic frog Maneating Lion See also Nubian Archaeological Expeditions References Sudan National Museum retrieved 7 March 2017 Tripadvisor about the SNM retrieved 7 March 2017 Museum guide retrieved 8 March 2017 Maria Constanza de Simone, Nubia and Nubiens: The Museumization of a culture, University of Leiden,2014, pp.135-141 Necia Desiree Harkless, Nubian Pharaos and Meroitic Kings. The Kingdom of Kush, 2006. ISBN 1-4259-4496-5 Judith Weingarten: The Arrival of Bes[et] on Middle-Minoan Crete, in: There and Back Again – the Crossroads II. Proceedings of an International Conference Held in Prague. September 15–18, 2014. Edited by Jana Mynárová, Pavel Onderka and Peter Pavúk, pp.181-196. ISBN 978-80-7308-575-9 Adam Lajtar; Sudan. Hay'ah al-Qawmiyah lil-Athar wa-al-Mata?if (2003). Catalogue of the Greek inscriptions in the Sudan National Museum at Khartoum (I. Khartoum Greek). Peeters Publishers. ISBN 978-90-429-1252-6. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
UNESCO Salvage Campaign retrieved 7 March 2017 Friedrich Hinkel, Dismantling and Removal of Endangered Monuments in Sudanese Nubia, in: Kush V Journal of the Sudan Antiquity Service, 1965
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[5] Neolithic black-topped red burnished pottery and ram statuettes of the C-Group culture.
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Funerary artefacts and ceramic art.
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Uncommon in Egyptian art, Beset is pictured frontally and full-faced rather than in profile.
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She is the protector of mothers and new-born children.
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The inscriptions contain Nubian funerary epitaphs.
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The temple of Hatshepsut of Buhen dedicated to Horus.
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The temple of Kumma dedicated to the ram-headed Khnum, the god of the Nile cataracts.
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The sunk reliefs of this temple were carved over a large period hence the scenes are fragmented.
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The Kingdom of Kush, 2006.
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Proceedings of an International Conference Held in Prague.
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Edited by Jana Mynárová, Pavel Onderka and Peter Pavúk, pp.181-196.
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ISBN 978-80-7308-575-9 Adam Lajtar; Sudan.
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Hay'ah al-Qawmiyah lil-Athar wa-al-Mata?if (2003).
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Peeters Publishers.
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ISBN 978-90-429-1252-6.
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Retrieved 8 May 2011.
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National Museum of Sudan
Sudan National Museum (8625532907).jpg
Main entrance of the National Museum of Sudan
National Museum of Sudan is located in SudanNational Museum of Sudan
Location of the National Museum in Khartoum, Sudan
Wikimedia | © OpenStreetMap
Established 1971
Location El Neel Avenue, Khartoum, Sudan
Coordinates 15.606°N 32.508°E
Type Archaeological collection of different epochs of Ancient Sudan and Ancient Egypt
Website Sudan National Museum

Statue of Pharaoh Taharqo
The National Museum of Sudan or Sudan National Museum, abbreviated SNM, is a double storied building constructed in 1955 and established as a museum in 1971. The building and its surrounding gardens house the largest and most comprehensive Nubian archaeological collection in the world including objects from the Paleolithic through to the Islamic period originating from every site of importance in the Sudan.[1]

In particular it houses collections of these periods of the History of Sudan: Paleolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic, A-Group culture, C-Group culture, Kerma Culture, Middle Kingdom of Egypt, New Kingdom of Egypt, Napata, Meroë, X-Group culture and medieval Makuria.

The museum is located on the El Neel (Nile) Avenue in Khartoum in Al-Mugran area near the spot where the White and the Blue Niles meet.[2]

Contents
1 Collection
1.1 The ground floor
1.2 The first floor
1.3 The museum garden
1.3.1 The relocated temples from lake Nasser
1.3.2 Inscribed rocks
1.3.3 The Tabo colossi
1.4 The Monumental Alley
2 See also
3 References
Collection
The objects of the museum are displayed in four areas:

The Main Hall on the ground floor
The gallery on the first floor
The Open Air Museum in the garden
The Monumental Alley outside the museum building
The ground floor
Key highlights of the collections include:[3][4]

The Taharqo statue. A 4-meter high granite statue of Pharaoh Taharqo, penultimate Pharaoh of the 25th dynasty, facing the main entrance welcomes the visitors of the museum. The statue was broken by the Egyptians upon sacking Napata in 591 BCE under the reign of Psamtik II, then buried in a pit by kushite priests and found by George Reisner in 1916.[5]
Neolithic black-topped red burnished pottery and ram statuettes of the C-Group culture.
Funerary artefacts and ceramic art.
Stela of the chief of Teh-khet Amenemhat, found at Debeira West
Middle Kingdom of Egypt and New Kingdom of Egypt artefacts from the area of the third cataract like Sai, Soleb, Sedeinga and Kawa.
A bowlegged figurine of the dwarf goddess Beset with a plump body and strange facial features: She has a large flat nose and a wide mouth framed by a lion mane and round lion ears. Uncommon in Egyptian art, Beset is pictured frontally and full-faced rather than in profile. She appears grasping an undulating snake in her 3-digit left hand indicating to control hostile forces. She is the protector of mothers and new-born children.[6]
The Napata and Meroë periods of the Kingdom of Kush including the 25th dynasty: Funerary material, a granite statue of king Aspelta, the statue of an unknown Meroitic king represented as an archer and artefacts from its most representative sites like Meroe, Musawwarat es-Sufra and Naqa.

Kerma Culture jug with a beak in the shape of a hippopotamus head

Stela of the chief of Teh-khet, Amenemhat

Female Demon Beset

Bronze with gold statue of a Meroitic king as an archer


Beginning of CE sandstone-carved Meroitic statue raising its left arm

The first floor
Wall paintings from the Christian Faras Cathedral dated between the 9th and the 13th century, detached during the UNESCO Salvage Campaign.
The catalogue of Greek and Coptic inscriptions, produced primarily by the Christian culture of Nubia, was the scholarly contribution of Adam Lajtar from the Warsaw University in respect of Greek inscriptions and Jacques Van der Vliet of the Leiden University in respect of Coptic inscriptions. The inscriptions contain Nubian funerary epitaphs. The sites of these inscriptions are from Nubian territory in Sudan extending from Faras in the north to Soba in the south. The texts are inscribed on sandstone, marble or terracotta (36 inscriptions, mostly from Makuria ) plaques of generally rectangular shape.[7]

Fresco of Faras cathedral

The story from Daniel and of the three youths thrown into the furnace.

The museum garden
The relocated temples from lake Nasser
In the museum garden are rebuilt some temples and tombs relocated from the submergence area of Lake Nasser. The Aswan High Dam built across the Nile River in Egypt created a reservoir in the Nubia area, which extended into Sudan's territory threatening to submerge the ancient temples. During the UNESCO Salvage Campaign [8] the following temples and tombs were re-erected in the museum garden according to the same orientation of their original location surrounding an artificial strip of water symbolic of the Nile:[9]

Some remains of the temple of Ramses II of Aksha dedicated to Amun and to Ramses II himself. Preserved are a part of the Pylon with the Pharaoh worshipping the dynastic god Amun and some side-elements detailing submitted peoples.
The temple of Hatshepsut of Buhen dedicated to Horus. The falcon-headed Horus, the mythical ancestor of all Pharaohs, and Hatshepsut appearing as a king, never as a woman.
The temple of Kumma dedicated to the ram-headed Khnum, the god of the Nile cataracts.
The tomb of the Nubian prince Djehuti-hotep at Debeira
The temple of Semna dedicated to Dedwen and the deified Sesostris III. The sunk reliefs of this temple were carved over a large period hence the scenes are fragmented.
The granite columns from the Faras Cathedral

The temple of Aksha:The Pharao worshipping Amun

The Buhen temple

Temple of Kumma: The ram-headed Khnum (left) and Tuthmosis III (center) running towards Hathor (right) offering her a lapwing

Temple of Semna: A New Kingdom graving shows an effigy of Sesostris III on a bark

Inscribed rocks
Fragments of inscriptions of the submerged Nile-areas inserted onto fake rocks including a Nilometer with the name of queen Sobekneferu.
At the banks of the water strip two Meroitic frog statues 60 cm in height from Basa representing the water-goddess Heket, as well as Beset the protector of pregnant women and newborn babies.

A Tabo coloss
The Tabo colossi
Outside the museum building are set up two granite unfinished colossi from Tabo of the Argo Island. Due to missing inscriptions they cannot be assigned to any person but they have Roman influence.

The Monumental Alley
The lane leading from the museum car parking to the exhibition halls is flanked with meroitic statues of 2 rams and 6 dark sandstone men-eating lions. The lions are from the first century BCE, as shown by the two cartouches from king Amanikhabale engraved on the first lion on the right. As well as the frogs the lions were brought from Basa and represent the warlike lion-god Apedemak.

Meroitic frog

Maneating Lion
See also
Nubian Archaeological Expeditions
References
Sudan National Museum retrieved 7 March 2017
Tripadvisor about the SNM retrieved 7 March 2017
Museum guide retrieved 8 March 2017
Maria Constanza de Simone, Nubia and Nubiens: The Museumization of a culture, University of Leiden,2014, pp.135-141
Necia Desiree Harkless, Nubian Pharaos and Meroitic Kings. The Kingdom of Kush, 2006. ISBN 1-4259-4496-5
Judith Weingarten: The Arrival of Bes[et] on Middle-Minoan Crete, in: There and Back Again – the Crossroads II. Proceedings of an International Conference Held in Prague. September 15–18, 2014. Edited by Jana Mynárová, Pavel Onderka and Peter Pavúk, pp.181-196. ISBN 978-80-7308-575-9
Adam Lajtar; Sudan. Hay'ah al-Qawmiyah lil-Athar wa-al-Mata?if (2003). Catalogue of the Greek inscriptions in the Sudan National Museum at Khartoum (I. Khartoum Greek). Peeters Publishers. ISBN 978-90-429-1252-6. Retrieved 8 May 2011.
UNESCO Salvage Campaign retrieved 7 March 2017
Friedrich Hinkel, Dismantling and Removal of Endangered Monuments in Sudanese Nubia, in: Kush V Journal of the Sudan Antiquity Service, 1965