en-fr  Trump promised to bring back coal jobs. That promise ‘will not be kept,’ experts say. Hard
Trump a promis de ramener les emplois du charbon. Selon les experts, cette promesse ne sera pas tenue.
D'après Darryl Fears, dans le Washington Post du 29 mars 2017, le président Trump a levé mardi un moratoire sur les baux fédéraux charbonniers à long terme, ouvrant la voie aux fouilles pour rechercher du combustible fossile sur les terres domaniales de l'ouest que peu de compagnies minières semblent souhaiter.
Avec les mineurs de charbon rassemblés autour de lui, Trump a signé un décret qui revient en arrière sur une interdiction temporaire de l'exploitation de charbon et un règlement sur la protection des cours d'eau imposés par l'administration Obama. Le décret fait suite à la promesse de campagne du président de relancer l'industrie charbonnière en difficulté et de relancer des milliers d'emplois de mineur dans l'Amérique rurale.
"Je leur ai fait cette promesse, a dit Trump, que nous remettrons nos mineurs au travail." Mais les experts de l'industrie disent que l'emploi dans l'industrie charbonnière continuera à se dégrader, non pas à cause d'un blocage de l'accès au charbon, mais parce que les propriétaires de centrales électriques se tournent vers le gaz naturel. Au moins six centrales qui dépendaient du charbon ont fermé ou annoncé qu'elles fermeraient depuis la victoire de Trump en novembre, parmi lesquelles la principale usine de la centrale Navajo en Arizona, la plus importante de l'ouest. Quarante autres prévoient de fermer durant les quatre années de la présidence.
La plus importante centrale électrique au charbon de l'ouest est en train de fermer. Même Trump ne peut pas la sauver.
Etant donné que les producteurs d'énergie changent de carburant, "la quantité de charbon dans la production nationale totale d'énergie (productions de carburant et d'électricité confondues) a diminué de 53% depuis 2006, selon un rapport du Département de l'énergie publié en juillet. Durant la même période, la production d'électricité à partir du gaz naturel s'est accrue de 33%.
Selon le rapport, le changement s'est reflété dans l'emploi, avec une augmentation des emplois dans le gaz naturel et autres énergies plus propres et une diminution des emplois charbonniers. Il a cité une analyse du Bureau of Labor Statistics (Bureau des statistiques du travail) montrant que l'extraction du charbon et l'emploi de soutien ont diminué de près de 40% entre mars 2009 et mars 2016.
Dans cet environnement financier fragile, les compagnies de charbon sont en difficulté. Deux des plus grands, Contura et Arch Coal, ont évité la faillite récemment, et un autre géant, Peabody Energy, a récemment déposé un plan de réorganisation en vue d'échapper à la faillite, selon l'Institut d'économie de l'énergie et d'analyse financière (Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis).
Comme Trump a promis de ressusciter l'industrie du charbon et les emplois à l'Agence de protection de l'environnement (Environmental Protection Agency), il a promis d'augmenter la production de la ressource que les experts disent en les tuant. "Nous allons débloquer l'énergie du gaz naturel, de l'huile et du schiste qui produit des emplois. Nous allons produire du charbon américain pour alimenter l'industrie américaine. "L'IEEFA n'était pas d'accord. "Les promesses de créer davantage d'emplois dans le charbon ne seront pas conservées - en fait, l'industrie continuera de réduire les effectifs", a déclaré le groupe dans ses Perspectives du charbon américain de 2017. "Ces pertes seront liées en partie au modèle d'activité à long terme de l'industrie houillère de produire plus de charbon avec moins de travailleurs." L'industrie a un problème fondamental qu'elle n'a pas abordé même si les entreprises échouent, l'IEEFA a déclaré: "Trop d'entreprises continuent d'exploiter trop de charbon pour peu de clients." Le charbon a un autre problème que suit les compagnies d'électricité: la santé. Studies have shown that the risk of death from heart disease, including heart attacks, was five times higher for people who breathed pollution from coal emissions over 20 years than for those who were exposed to other types of air pollution. Burning coal releases fine particles with a potent mix of toxins, including benzene, mercury, arsenic and selenium.
The World Health Organization found that 7 million people died from breathing air pollution in 2012, one in eight of the total number of global deaths. The 2014 study said air pollution, including coal, “is now the world’s largest single environmental health risk” and that “reducing air pollution could save millions of lives.” In addition to enforcing a moratorium on leases, the Obama administration sought to protect water near mining sites by forcing coal companies “to avoid mining practices that permanently pollute streams, destroy drinking water sources … and threaten forests.” That rule was also scuttled by a recent congressional resolution that the president signed.
[Coal is king among pollution that causes heart disease, scientists say.]
The National Mining Association slammed Interior when the rule was imposed in December, saying Obama administration officials failed to engage mining states such as Wyoming, Montana and Nevada during its development, leading to a win for “extreme environmental groups and a loss for everyday Americans,” said Hal Quinn, the association’s president and chief executive.
He applauded the congressional resolution and Trump’s signature demolishing a rule that placed “obstacles in the path of responsible mining and other necessary activities that depend on federal land while at the same time marginalizing the participation of states and local stakeholders.” During the signing ceremony, Trump also touched on the resolution he signed. “We’ve already eliminated a devastating, anti-coal regulation, but that was just the beginning,” he said. “My administration is putting an end to the war on coal, going to have clean coal, really clean coal.” Paul Bledsoe, a lecturer at American University’s Center for Environmental Policy, an Interior official under President Bill Clinton, called Trump’s attempt at job creation “sheer nonsense.” Coal’s decline is too steep.
“No company will bid on new leases when there’s already a glut of unwanted coal on the market,” Bledsoe said. “Trump’s false promise that he can bring back coal is really exposed as so much coal dust and mirrors by this executive order, since utilities will continue to use natural gas instead of coal.”
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Trump promised to bring back coal jobs.
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That promise ‘will not be kept,’ experts say.
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Another 40 are projected to close during the president’s four-year term.
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[The West’s largest coal fired power plant is closing.
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Not even Trump can save it.]
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Over the same period, electricity generation from natural gas increased 33 percent.
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In this shaky financial environment, coal companies are struggling.
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“We will unlock job producing natural gas, oil and shale energy.
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We will produce American coal to power American industry.” The IEEFA disagreed.
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Trump promised to bring back coal jobs. That promise ‘will not be kept,’ experts say.
By Darryl Fears, The Washington Post, March 29, 2017
President Trump lifted a moratorium on federal coal leases Tuesday, paving the way for excavation of a fossil fuel on public land in the West that few mining companies seem to want.
With coal miners gathered around him, Trump signed an executive order rolling back a temporary ban on mining coal and a stream protection rule imposed by the Obama administration. The order follows the president’s campaign promise to revive the struggling coal industry and bring back thousands of lost mining jobs in rural America.
“I made them this promise,” Trump said, “we will put our miners back to work.”
But industry experts say coal mining jobs will continue to be lost, not because of blocked access to coal, but because power plant owners are turning to natural gas. At least six plants that relied on coal have closed or announced they will close since Trump’s victory in November, including the main plant at the Navajo Generating Station in Arizona, the largest in the West. Another 40 are projected to close during the president’s four-year term.
[The West’s largest coal fired power plant is closing. Not even Trump can save it.]
As power companies switch fuels, “the amount of coal in the national energy generation mix (both Fuels and Electricity Generation) has declined by 53 percent since 2006,” according to a Department of Energy report released in January. Over the same period, electricity generation from natural gas increased 33 percent.
The shift was mirrored by employment, with jobs in natural gas and other cleaner energy resources rising and coal jobs declining, the report said. It cited a Bureau of Labor Statistics analysis showing that coal mining and support employment declined by nearly 40 percent between March 2009 and March 2016.
In this shaky financial environment, coal companies are struggling. Two of the largest, Contura and Arch Coal, emerged from bankruptcy only recently, and another giant, Peabody Energy, recently filed a reorganization plan for its path out of bankruptcy, according to the Institute for Energy Economics and Financial Analysis.
As Trump vowed to resurrect the coal industry and jobs at the Environmental Protection Agency, he promised to increase production of the resource that experts say is killing them. “We will unlock job producing natural gas, oil and shale energy. We will produce American coal to power American industry.”
The IEEFA disagreed. “Promises to create more coal jobs will not be kept — indeed the industry will continue to cut payrolls,” the group said in its 2017 U.S. Coal Outlook. “These losses will be related in part to the coal industry’s long-term business model of producing more coal with fewer workers.”
The industry has a fundamental problem it has not addressed even as businesses fail, the IEEFA said: “Too many companies are still mining too much coal for too few customers.”
Coal has another problem that dogs power companies: health. Studies have shown that the risk of death from heart disease, including heart attacks, was five times higher for people who breathed pollution from coal emissions over 20 years than for those who were exposed to other types of air pollution. Burning coal releases fine particles with a potent mix of toxins, including benzene, mercury, arsenic and selenium.
The World Health Organization found that 7 million people died from breathing air pollution in 2012, one in eight of the total number of global deaths. The 2014 study said air pollution, including coal, “is now the world’s largest single environmental health risk” and that “reducing air pollution could save millions of lives.”
In addition to enforcing a moratorium on leases, the Obama administration sought to protect water near mining sites by forcing coal companies “to avoid mining practices that permanently pollute streams, destroy drinking water sources … and threaten forests.” That rule was also scuttled by a recent congressional resolution that the president signed.
[Coal is king among pollution that causes heart disease, scientists say.]
The National Mining Association slammed Interior when the rule was imposed in December, saying Obama administration officials failed to engage mining states such as Wyoming, Montana and Nevada during its development, leading to a win for “extreme environmental groups and a loss for everyday Americans,” said Hal Quinn, the association’s president and chief executive.
He applauded the congressional resolution and Trump’s signature demolishing a rule that placed “obstacles in the path of responsible mining and other necessary activities that depend on federal land while at the same time marginalizing the participation of states and local stakeholders.”
During the signing ceremony, Trump also touched on the resolution he signed. “We’ve already eliminated a devastating, anti-coal regulation, but that was just the beginning,” he said. “My administration is putting an end to the war on coal, going to have clean coal, really clean coal.”
Paul Bledsoe, a lecturer at American University’s Center for Environmental Policy, an Interior official under President Bill Clinton, called Trump’s attempt at job creation “sheer nonsense.” Coal’s decline is too steep.
“No company will bid on new leases when there’s already a glut of unwanted coal on the market,” Bledsoe said. “Trump’s false promise that he can bring back coal is really exposed as so much coal dust and mirrors by this executive order, since utilities will continue to use natural gas instead of coal.”