en-fr  Carnivorous plants
Les plantes carnivores sont des plantes qui obtiennent des nutriments à partir d'animaux piégés et mangés. Elles sont souvent appelées plantes insectivores, car elles piègent habituellement des insectes. Puisqu'elles obtiennent une partie leur nourriture à partir d'animaux, les plantes carnivores peuvent se développer dans des endroits où le sol est fin ou pauvre en nutriments Ceci est vrai pour des sols pauvres en azote, comme les tourbières acides et les affleurements rocheux. Charles DARWIN écrivit le premier livre connu sur les plantes carnivores en 1875.

Cette capacité de la plante à attraper des animaux est typique des plantes carnivores. Il y a plus d'une douzaine de genres classés en cinq familles. Ceux-ci incluent les 625 espèces qui attrapent et piègent les proies, produisent des enzymes digestives et les digèrent. En outre, il y a plus de 300 espèces dans plusieurs genres qui montrent certaines de ces caractéristiques, mais pas toutes. Elles sont habituellement appelées plantes protocarnivores.

Les mécanismes de piégeage des plantes insectivores sont composés de feuilles conçues comme des cruches ou des vessies qui attrapent les insectes. Aujourd'hui, nous connaisons cinq types de pièges, les « chausse-trapes » (plantes carnivores) capturent leurs proies dans une feuille enroulée qui possède un réservoir rempli d'enzymes digestives ou de bactéries.

Le piége papier-tue-mouche qui utilise un mucilage collant.

Les pièges à pression utilisent un rapide mouvement de la feuille.

Les utriculaires sucent une proie avec une vessie qui produit un vide interne.

Les pièges du pot de homard forcent les proies à se déplacer vers un organe digestif avec des poils pointés vers l'intérieur.

Ces pièges sont classés entre actifs ou passifs. Triphyophyllum est une liane (une plante grimpante des forêts tropicales). Elle a trois types de feuilles. Au besoin, elle laisse sortir de longues feuilles. Ce sont des pièges papier-tue-mouche qui cachent du mucus. Les feuilles de la plante sont immobiles en réponse à une proie mouvante. La Sundew Drosera, d'autre part, est une plante insectivore avec un piège papier-tue-mouche actif. Toutes les espèces de Sundew sont capables de bouger leurs tentacules gluants en réponse à un contact. Les tentacules, très sensibles, se courberont vers le centre de la feuille afin de mettre l'insecte au contact d'un maximum de glandes pétiolées. Selon Darwin, le déplacement d'un tentacule par un petit moucheron est suffisant pour déclencher une réponse de la plante. Cela aide à la capture et à la digestion des proies.

Le piège à mouche de Vénus (Dionaea muscipula) fait partie d'un petit groupe de plantes capable de se déplacer rapidement. Quand un insecte ou une araignée rampe le long de ses feuilles et touche un de ces poils, le piège se referme mais seulement si un poil différent est touché dans les vingt secondes qui suivent le premier contact. Le déclenchement en deux temps évite à la plante de gâcher de l'énergie sur des objets sans valeur nutritive.

Un cas limite est quand une plante carnivore doit attirer, tuer et digérer une proie. Elle doit alors participer à la digestion active de la proie. Dans la plupart des cas, cela donnera des acides aminés et des ions d'ammonium. Il y a d'autres cas, où la plante attrape la proie, mais ne la digère pas directement. Plutôt, elles sont en symbioses avec un autre organisme, lequel se nourrit de la proie. La sundew Roridula en est un exemple, elle forme une symbiose avec un genre d'hétéroptère (punaise). Les insectes symbiotiques de la plante mangent les insectes capturés. La plante tire bénéfice en extrayant des nutriments à partir des selles des insectes symbiotiques.

La plupart des fossiles de plantes carnivores retrouvées sont des graines ou des pollens. Les plantes carnivores sont généralement des herbes, sans bois ou écorces. La plante carnivore actuelle a probablement subi 6 évolutions indépendantes au cours du temps.

Certains pensent que tous les types de pièges ont une structure de base similaire: la feuille velue. Les feuilles velues attrapent et retiennent les gouttes de pluie, ce qui va favoriser la croissance des bactéries. Les insectes arrivent sur la feuille, ils sont pris par la tension de surface générée par l'eau et vont suffoquer. Les bactéries commencent à faire pourrir l'insecte, libérant les nutriments du cadavre. La plante absorbe alors les nutriments à travers ses feuilles. Ce type de "feuille nourriciére" peut être retrouvé chez d'autres plantes non carnivores. Les plantes qui présentaient les meilleures capacités à retenir de l'eau, capturaient plus d'insectes et avaient un avantage sélectif. L'eau de pluie pouvait être retenue par une feuille en forme de coupe, formant un piège de type chausse-trape. Alternativement, les insectes pouvaient être pris dans des feuilles collantes, menant aux pièges de type papier-tue-mouche.
unit 1
Carnivorous plants are plants which get nutrients from trapping and eating animals.
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 2
They are often called insectivorous plants, because they usually trap insects.
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 4
This is true for soils with little nitrogen, such as acidic bogs and rock outcrops.
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 5
Charles Darwin wrote the first well-known book on carnivorous plants in 1875.
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 6
This ability of plants to catch animals is true carnivory.
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 7
There are more than twelve genera in five families.
2 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 10
These are usually called protocarnivorous plants.
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 13
Flypaper traps use sticky mucilage.
2 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 14
Snap traps use rapid leaf movements.
2 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 15
Bladderworts suck in prey with a bladder that produces an internal vacuum.
1 Translations, 0 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 16
Lobster-pot traps force prey to move towards a digestive organ with inward-pointing hairs.
1 Translations, 0 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 17
These traps are all classified as active or passive.
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 18
Triphyophyllum is a liana (a climber in tropical forests).
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 19
It has three types of leaves.
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 20
When needed, it puts out long leaves.
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 21
These are passive 'flypapers' which hide mucus.
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 22
The leaves of the plant do not grow or move as a response to moving prey.
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 23
The Sundew Drosera, on the other hand, is an active flypaper.
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 24
All species of Sundew are able to move their sticky tentacles in response to a contact.
2 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 27
This helps the catch and digestion of prey.
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 28
The Venus flytrap, Dionaea muscipula, is one of a very small group of plants able to move fast.
2 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 30
The two-touch trigger avoids wasting energy on objects with no food value.
3 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 31
Borderline cases A carnivorous plant must attract, kill and digest prey.
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 32
It must then also benefit from digesting the prey.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 33
In most cases, this will yield amino acids and ammonium ions.
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 34
There are some cases, where plants catch the prey, but they do not digest it.
2 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 35
Rather, they have a symbiosis with another organism, which feeds on the prey.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 36
One such case is the species of the sundew Roridula, which forms a symbiosis with the assassin bug.
2 Translations, 0 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 37
The bugs eat the trapped insects.
1 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 38
The plant benefits from the nutrients in the bugs' faeces.
2 Translations, 0 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 39
Evolution Few fossil carnivorous plants have been found, and then usually as seed or pollen.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 40
Carnivorous plants are generally herbs, without wood or bark.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 41
True carnivoury has probably evolved independently at least six times.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 42
Some think all trap types have a similar basic structure—the hairy leaf.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 43
Hairy leaves do catch and hold drops of rainwater, which helps bacterial growth.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 44
Insects land on the leaf, are caught by the surface tension of the water, and suffocate.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 45
Bacteria start to decay the insect, and release nutrients from the corpse.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 46
The plant then absorbs the nutrients through its leaves.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 47
This 'leaf feeding' can be found in many non-carnivorous plants.
2 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 48
Plants that were better at holding water and insects therefore had a selective advantage.
2 Translations, 0 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 49
Rainwater can be retained by cupping the leaf, leading to pitfall traps.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
unit 50
Alternatively, insects can be caught by making the leaf stickier, leading to flypaper traps.
2 Translations, 0 Upvotes, Last Activity 5 months, 1 week ago
Rosalia • 76  commented on  unit 15  5 months, 1 week ago
Oplusse • 14029  commented on  unit 50  5 months, 1 week ago
Oplusse • 14029  commented on  unit 34  5 months, 1 week ago
Oplusse • 14029  commented on  unit 41  5 months, 1 week ago

Carnivorous plants are plants which get nutrients from trapping and eating animals. They are often called insectivorous plants, because they usually trap insects. Since they get some of their food from animals, carnivorous plants can grow in places where the soil is thin, or poor in nutrients. This is true for soils with little nitrogen, such as acidic bogs and rock outcrops. Charles Darwin wrote the first well-known book on carnivorous plants in 1875.

This ability of plants to catch animals is true carnivory. There are more than twelve genera in five families. These include about 625 species that attract and trap prey, produce digestive enzymes, and use their nutrients. In addition, there are more than 300 species in several genera that show some but not all of these characteristics. These are usually called protocarnivorous plants.

Trapping mechanisms
Insectivorous plants have leaves that are made like pitchers or bladders which catch insects. Today, five different ways of trapping are known

Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf that has a pool of digestive enzymes or bacteria.

Flypaper traps use sticky mucilage.

Snap traps use rapid leaf movements.

Bladderworts suck in prey with a bladder that produces an internal vacuum.

Lobster-pot traps force prey to move towards a digestive organ with inward-pointing hairs.

These traps are all classified as active or passive. Triphyophyllum is a liana (a climber in tropical forests). It has three types of leaves. When needed, it puts out long leaves. These are passive 'flypapers' which hide mucus. The leaves of the plant do not grow or move as a response to moving prey. The Sundew Drosera, on the other hand, is an active flypaper. All species of Sundew are able to move their sticky tentacles in response to a contact. The tentacles are very sensitive and will bend toward the center of the leaf in order to bring the insect into contact with as many stalked glands as possible. According to Darwin, the touch of legs of a small gnat with a single tentacle is enough to cause this response. This helps the catch and digestion of prey.

The Venus flytrap, Dionaea muscipula, is one of a very small group of plants able to move fast. When an insect or spider crawls along the leaves and touches a hair, the trap closes only if a different hair is contacted within twenty seconds of the first touch. The two-touch trigger avoids wasting energy on objects with no food value.

Borderline cases

A carnivorous plant must attract, kill and digest prey. It must then also benefit from digesting the prey. In most cases, this will yield amino acids and ammonium ions. There are some cases, where plants catch the prey, but they do not digest it. Rather, they have a symbiosis with another organism, which feeds on the prey. One such case is the species of the sundew Roridula, which forms a symbiosis with the assassin bug. The bugs eat the trapped insects. The plant benefits from the nutrients in the bugs' faeces.

Evolution

Few fossil carnivorous plants have been found, and then usually as seed or pollen. Carnivorous plants are generally herbs, without wood or bark. True carnivoury has probably evolved independently at least six times.

Some think all trap types have a similar basic structure—the hairy leaf. Hairy leaves do catch and hold drops of rainwater, which helps bacterial growth. Insects land on the leaf, are caught by the surface tension of the water, and suffocate. Bacteria start to decay the insect, and release nutrients from the corpse. The plant then absorbs the nutrients through its leaves. This 'leaf feeding' can be found in many non-carnivorous plants. Plants that were better at holding water and insects therefore had a selective advantage. Rainwater can be retained by cupping the leaf, leading to pitfall traps. Alternatively, insects can be caught by making the leaf stickier, leading to flypaper traps.