en-de  The Life and Art of Mark Rothko Medium
DAS LEBEN UND DIE KUNST MARK ROTHKOS.

von Lisa Marder, aktualisiert am 2. August 2017.

Mark Rothko (1903-1970) war eines der bekanntesten Mitglieder der Bewegung des Abstrakten Expressionismus, vor allem bekannt für seine Farbfeldmalerei. Seine berühmte Handschrift großformatiger Farbfeldmalereien, die nur aus großen, rechteckigen Blöcken schwebender, pulsierender Farbe bestehen, verschlingen, verbinden und transportieren den Betrachter in ein anderes Reich, eine andere Dimension, befreien den Geist von den Grenzen der alltäglichen Mühe.

Diese Gemälde glühen häufig von innen und scheinen fast zu leben, atmen, mit dem Betrachter in stillem Dialog zu interagieren und schaffen ein Gefühl des Heiligen in der Interaktion, Reminiszens an die Ich-Du-Beziehung, beschrieben durch den berühmten Theologen Martin Buber.

Über die Beziehung seines Werkes zum Betrachter sagte Rothko: "Ein Bild lebt von Gemeinschaft, Erweiterung und Beschleunigung in den Augen des sensiblen Betrachters. Es stirbt ebenso. Es ist deshalb riskant, es hinaus in die Welt zu schicken. Wie oft muss es von den Augen eines Gefühllosen und der Grausamkeit des Unfähigen beeinträchtigt werden." Er sagte auch:"Ich bin an einem Zusammenhang zwischen Form und Farbe nicht interessiert." Die einzige Sache, die mir am Herzen liegt, ist der Ausdruck grundsätzlicher Gefühle eines Mannes: Tragödie, Ekstase und Schicksal.

Biografie.
Rothko wurde als Marcus Rothkowitz am 25. September 1903 in Dvinsk, Russland, geboren. Er kam 1913 mit seiner Familie in die Vereinigten Staaten und ließ sich in Portland, Oregon nieder.

Sein Vater verstarb, bald nachdem Marcus in Portland ankam, und die Familie arbeitete für das Bekleidungsunternehmen eines Vetters, um über die Runden zu kommen. Marcus war ein ausgezeichneter Student und von den Geisteswissenschaften und der Musik während dieser Jahre beeinflusst, lernte er zu zeichnen und zu malen und Mandoline und Klavier zu spielen. Als er älter wurde, interessierte er sich für sozial-liberale Anliegen und linksgerichtete Politik.



Im September 1921 besuchte er die Yale Universität, wo er für zwei Jahre blieb. Er studierte die Geistes-und Naturwissenschaften, gründete eine liberale Tageszeitung mit, und bestritt durch Gelegenheitsjobs seinen Lebensunterhalt, bevor er 1923 die Yale-Universität ohne Abschluss verließ, um sich dem Künstlerleben zu widmen. Er ließ sich 1925 in New York City nieder und meldete sich an der Arts Students League an, wo er vom Künstler Max Weber unterrichtet wurde, und an der Parsons School of Design, wo er bei Arshile Gorky studierte. Er kehrte periodisch nach Portland zurück, um seine Familie zu besuchen, und schloss sich dort einmal einer Schauspieltruppe an. Seine Liebe zum Theater und Drama spielte weiterhin eine wichtige Rolle in seinem Leben und in seiner Kunst. Er malte Bühnenbilder, und sagte über seine Gemälde: "Ich betrachte meine Bilder als Drama ; die Formen in meinen Bilder sind die Mitwirkenden".

Von 1929-1952 unterrichtete Rothko am Jewish Center der Brooklyn Academy Kinder in Kunst. Kinder zu unterrichten, gefiel ihm, da er fühlte, dass ihre zweckfreien, ungefilterten Antworten auf ihre Kunst ihm halfen, das Wesentliche von Gefühl und Form in seiner eigenen Arbeit einzufangen.

Seine erste Einzelausstellung war im Jahre 1933 in der Contemporary Arts Gallery in New York. Damals bestanden seine Gemälde aus Landschaften, Portraits und Aktdarstellungen.

1935 schloss sich Rothko acht anderen Künstlern an, einschließlich Adolph Gottlieb, um eine Gruppe mit dem Namen "The Ten" zu gründen (obwohl sie nur neun waren), die sich, vom Impressionismus beeindruckt, aus Protest gegenüber der Kunst gründete, die damals nomalerweise ausgestellt wurde. "The Ten" wurden am bekanntesten durch ihre Ausstellung "The Ten: Whitney Dissenters" , die in den Mercury Galleries drei Tage nach der Eröffnung der Whitney Annual eröffnete. Der Zweck ihres Protests wurde in der Einleitung des Kunstkatalogs angegeben, der sie als "Experimentatoren" and "stark individualistisch" beschrieb und erklärte, der Zweck ihrer Assoziation sei es, auf amerikanische Kunst aufmerksam zu machen, die nicht wörtlich, nicht gegenständlich und nicht in lokale Farbe vertieft und nicht "zeitgenössisch nur in streng chronologischer Bedeutung" sei. Ihre Aufgabe war " gegen die angebliche Gleichwertigkeit der amerikanischen Malerei und wörtlichen Malerei zu protestieren."

Im Jahr 1945 heiratete Rothko ein zweites Mal. Mit seiner zweiten Frau, Mary Alice Beistle, hatte er zwei Kinder, Kathy Lynn (1950) und Christopher (1963).

Nach vielen Jahren als Künstler in der Versenkung brachten die fünfziger Jahre Rothko schließlich Anerkennung und 1959 hatte Rothko eine große Einzelausstellung in New York im Museum of Modern Art. Er arbeitete auch an drei bedeutenden Auftragswerken in den Jahren 1958 bis 1969: Wandmalereien für das Holyoke Center am Harvard-Universität; Monumentalgemälde für das Four Seasons Restaurant und den Seagrams Gebäude, von denen beide sich in New York befanden; und Gemälde für die Rothko Kapelle.

Im Jahre 1970 beging Rothko im Alter von 66 Jahren Selbstmord. Einige denken, dass die dunklen und düsteren Gemälde, die er in seinem Spätzeit machte, wie zum Beispiel jene für die Rothko-Kapelle, seinen Selbstmord ahnen lassen; hingegen halten andere jene Werke für eine Öffnung des Geistes und eine Einladung zu größerem spirituellem Bewusstsein.

Die Rothko-Kapelle.
Im Jahre 1964 wurde Rothko von John und Dominique de Menial beauftragt, einen meditativen Raum zu gestalten, der mit seinen Gemälden, die speziell für diesen Raum hergestellt sind, ausgestattet ist. Die Rothkokapelle, in Zusammenarbeit mit den Archtekten Philip Johnson, Howard Barnstone und Eugene Aubry entworfen, wurde 1971 ultimativ fertiggestellt, obwohl Rothko 1970 starb, so dass er das endgültige Gebäude nicht sah. Es ist ein unregelmäßiger, achteckiger Backsteinbau, der vierzehn von Rothkos Wandgemälden enthält. Die Gemälde enthalten Rothkos charakteristische, schwebende Rechtecke, obwohl sie dunkel gefärbt sind- sieben Bilder mit scharfkantigen, schwarzen Rechtecken auf kastanienbraunen Grund, und sieben lila, tonale Bilder.

Es ist eine religionsübergreifende Kapelle, die Menschen aus aller Welt besuchen. Laut der 'The Rothko Chapel' Website ist "Die Rothkokapelle ein spiritueller Ort, ein Forum fûr Staatsoberhäupte, ein Ort der Abgeschiedenheit und des sich Sammelns. Es ist ein Mittelpunkt für Bürgerrechtsaktivisten, eine ruhige Unterbrechung, eine Stille, die bewegt. Es ist ein Ort für 90.000 Menschen aller Glaubensrichtungen, die sie jedes Jahr aus allen Teilen der Welt besuchen. Es ist die Heimat des Oscar Romero-Preises." Die Rothkokapelle ist im Nationalregister Historischer Orte.

Einflüsse auf Rothkos Kunst. Es gab etliche Einflüsse auf Rothkos Kunst und Denkart. Als Student wurde Rothko in der Mitte bis zu den späten 1920er Jahren von Max Weber, Arshile Gorky und von Milton Avery beeinflusst, von dem er sehr verschiedene Wege lernte an das Malen heranzugehen. Weber lehrte ihn über Kubismus und gegenstandsloses Gemälde; Gorky lehrte ihn über Surrealismus, Vorstellung und mythische Bildersprache; und Milton Avery, mit dem viele Jahre lang guter Freund war, brachte ihm bei, wie man dünne Schichten flacher Farben benutzt, um durch farbliche Beziehungen die Tiefe zu erschaffen.

Wie viele Künstler bewunderte Rothko auch Renaissancegemälde sehr und ihren Farbreichtum und ihr erkennbar inneres Leuchten, erzielt durch das Auftragen mehrerer Schichten dünner Farbglasuren.

Als gebildeter Mensch gehörten andere Einflüsse wie Goya, Turner, die Impressionisten, Matisse, Caspar Friedrich und Andere mit dazu.

Rothko studierte auch Friedrich Nietzsche, den deutschen Philosophen des 19. Jahrhunderts, und las sein Buch "Die Geburt der Tragödie."

Er bezog Nietzsches Philosophie des Kampfes zwischen dem Dionysischen und dem Apollonischen mit ein.

Rothko wurde von Michelangelo, Rembrandt, Goya, Turner, den Impressionisten, Caspar Friedrich und Matisse, Manet, Cezanne beeinflusst, um nur einige zu nennen.

1940er.
Die 1940er Jahre waren für Rothko ein wichtiges Jahrzehnt, eines, in dem er viele Wandlungen im Stil durchlief, welche aus der klassischen Farbfeldmalerei hervorgingen, die vor allem mit ihm in Verbindung gebracht wird. Laut seines Sohnes, Christopher Rothko in dem Buch MARK ROTHKO "The Decisive Decade 1940-1950" hatte Rothko in diesem Jahrzehnt sechs unterschiedliche Stilrichtungen, jede eine Folge aus der vorangegangenen. Es sind: 1. Figurativ (1923-40); 2. Surrealistisch -auf Mythen beruhend (1940-43);3. Surrealistisch - abstrahiert (1943-46); 4. Vielgestaltig (1946-48); 5. Vorübergehend 1948-49); 6. Klassisch/ Farbfeld (1949-70."

Irgendwann 1940 machte Rothko seine letzte figurative Malerei, experimentierte dann mit Surrealismus und beseitigte schließlich völlig irgendeinen figürlichen Eindruck in seinen Gemälden, indem er sie weiter abstrahierte und sie auf unbestimmte Formen reduzierte, die in Feldern von Farbe trieben – "multiforms" wie sie von anderen genannt wurden – die stark durch Milton Averys Malstil beeinflusst wurden. Die Multiformen sind die ersten echten Abstraktionen Rothkos, während ihre Palette die zukünftige Palette der Farbfeldmalereien ahnen lässt. Er verdeutlichte weiter durch das Beseitigen von Formen seine Absicht, und begann 1949 seine Farbfeldmalereien, indem er sogar ausdrucksvoller Farbe benutzt, um monumentale schwebende Rechtecke zu schaffen und die Bandbreite von menschlichen Gefühlen darin mitzuteilen.

Farbfeldmalereien.
Rothko ist wohl für seine Farbfeldmalereien am bekanntesten, die er Ende der 1940er Jahre zu malen begann. Diese Malereien waren wesentlich größere Malereien und füllten nahezu eine ganze Wand vom Boden bis zur Decke aus. Bei dieser Malerei benutzte er die "Soakstaintechnik", ursprünglich von Helen Frankenthaler entworfen. He would apply layers of thinned paint onto the canvas to create two or three luminous abstract soft-edged rectangles.

Rothko sagte, dass seine Gemälde groß seien, um den Bildbetrachter zum Teil des Erlebnisses zu machen, statt ihn vom Gemälde zu trennen. In fact, he preferred to have his paintings shown together in an exhibit in order to create a greater impact of being contained or enveloped by the paintings, rather than broken up by other artworks. Er sagte, dass die Gemälde monumental seien, nicht um "grandios" zu sein, sondern in der Tat, um "intimer und menschlicher" zu sein. According to the Phillips Gallery in Washington, D C, "His large canvases, typical of his mature style, establish a one-on-one correspondence with the viewer, giving human scale to the experience of the painting and intensifying the effects of color. As a result, the paintings produce in the responsive viewer a sense of the ethereal and a state of spiritual contemplation. Through color alone—applied to suspended rectangles within abstract compositions—Rothko's work evokes strong emotions ranging from exuberance and awe to despair and anxiety, suggested by the hovering and indeterminate nature of his forms."

In 1960 the Phillips Gallery built a special room dedicated to displaying Mark Rothko's painting, called The Rothko Room. It contains four paintings by the artist, one painting on each wall of a small room, giving the space a meditative quality.

Ende der 1940er hörte Rothko auf, seinen Werken herkömmliche Titel zu geben und bevorzugte stattdessen, sie durch Farbe oder Anzahl zu unterscheiden. As much as he wrote about art during his lifetime, as in his book, The Artist's Reality: Philosophies on Art, written about 1940-41, he began to stop explaining the meaning of his work with his color field paintings, claiming that "Silence is so accurate."

Es ist die Essenz der Beziehung zwischen dem Betrachter und dem Gemälde, die wichtig ist, nicht die Worte, die es beschreiben. Mark Rothkos Gemälde müssen persönlich erfahren werden, um wirklich gewürdigt zu werden.

www.thoughtco.com/mark-rothko-biography-4147374
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The Life and Art of Mark Rothko.
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by Lisa Marder Updated August 02, 2017.
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It dies by the same token.
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It is therefore risky to send it out into the world.
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The only thing I care about is the expression of man's basic emotions: tragedy, ecstasy, destiny.
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Biography.
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Rothko was born Marcus Rothkowitz on September 25, 1903 in Dvinsk, Russia.
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He came to the United States in 1913 with his family, settling in Portland, Oregon.
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As he grew older he became interested in socially liberal causes and leftist politics.
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In September 1921 he attended Yale University, where he stayed for two years.
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His love of theater and drama continued to play an important role in his life and art.
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From 1929-1952 Rothko taught children art at the Center Academy, Brooklyn Jewish Center.
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His first one-person show was in 1933 at the Contemporary Arts Gallery in New York.
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At the time, his paintings consisted of landscapes, portraits, and nudes.
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In 1945 Rothko married for the second time.
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Rothko committed suicide at the age of 66 in 1970.
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The Rothko Chapel.
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It is an irregular octagonal brick building that holds fourteen of Rothko's mural paintings.
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It is an interfaith chapel that people visit from all over the world.
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It’s an epicenter for civil rights activists, a quiet disruption, a stillness that moves.
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It is the home of the Óscar Romero Award."
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The Rothko Chapel is on the National Register of Historic Places.
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Influences on Rothko's Art There were a number of influences on Rothko's art and thought.
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1940s.
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Color Field Paintings.
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Rothko is most well-known for his color field paintings, which he began painting in the late 1940s.
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These paintings were much larger paintings, almost filling up an entire wall from floor to ceiling.
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In these paintings he used the soak-stain technique, initially developed by Helen Frankenthaler.
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Mark Rothko's paintings have to be experienced in person to be truly appreciated.
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www.thoughtco.com/mark-rothko-biography-4147374
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The Life and Art of Mark Rothko.

by Lisa Marder
Updated August 02, 2017.

Mark Rothko (1903-1970) was one of the most well-known members of the Abstract Expressionist movement, known primarily for his color-field paintings. His famous signature large-scale color-field paintings, consisting solely of large rectangular blocks of floating, pulsing color, engulf, connect with, and transport the viewer to another realm, another dimension, freeing the spirit from the confines of everyday stress.

These paintings often glow from within and seem almost alive, breathing, interacting with the viewer in silent dialogue, creating a sense of the sacred in the interaction, reminiscent of the I-Thou relationship described by renowned theologian Martin Buber.

About the relationship of his work to the viewer Rothko said, “A picture lives by companionship, expanding and quickening in the eyes of the sensitive observer. It dies by the same token. It is therefore risky to send it out into the world. How often it must be impaired by the eyes of the unfeeling and the cruelty of the impotent.” He also said, 'I am not interested in the relationship between form and colour. The only thing I care about is the expression of man's basic emotions: tragedy, ecstasy, destiny.

Biography.
Rothko was born Marcus Rothkowitz on September 25, 1903 in Dvinsk, Russia. He came to the United States in 1913 with his family, settling in Portland, Oregon.

His father died soon after Marcus arrived in Portland and the family worked for a cousins' clothing company to make ends meet. Marcus was an excellent student, and was exposed to the arts and music during these years, learning to draw and paint, and to play the mandolin and piano. As he grew older he became interested in socially liberal causes and leftist politics.

In September 1921 he attended Yale University, where he stayed for two years. He studied liberal arts and science, cofounded a liberal daily newspaper, and supported himself with odd jobs before leaving Yale in 1923 without graduating to commit himself to life as an artist. He settled in New York City in 1925 and enrolled at the Arts Students League where he was taught by the artist, Max Weber, and Parsons School of Design where he studied under Arshile Gorky. He returned to Portland periodically to visit his family and joined an acting company while there one time. His love of theater and drama continued to play an important role in his life and art. He painted stage sets, and said about about his paintings, "I think of my pictures as drama; the shapes in my pictures are the performers."

From 1929-1952 Rothko taught children art at the Center Academy, Brooklyn Jewish Center. He liked teaching children, feeling that their pure unfiltered responses to their art helped him to capture the essence of emotion and form in his own work.

His first one-person show was in 1933 at the Contemporary Arts Gallery in New York. At the time, his paintings consisted of landscapes, portraits, and nudes.

In 1935 Rothko joined with eight other artists, including Adolph Gottlieb, to form a group called The Ten (although there were only nine), who, influenced by Impressionism, formed in protest to the art that was typically being exhibited at the time. The Ten became most well-known for their exhibit,"The Ten: Whitney Dissenters," which opened at the Mercury Galleries three days after the opening of the Whitney Annual. The purpose of their protest was stated in the introduction to the catalogue, which described them as "experimenters" and "strongly individualistic" and explained that the purpose of their association was to call attention to American art that was not literal, not representational and preoccupied with local color, and not "contemporary only in the strictly chronological sense." Their mission was "to protest against the reputed equivalence of American painting and literal painting."

In 1945 Rothko married for the second time. With his second wife, Mary Alice Beistle, he had two children, Kathy Lynn in 1950, and Christopher in 1963.

After many years of obscurity as an artist, the 1950s finally brought Rothko acclaim and in 1959 Rothko had a major one-man exhibit in New York at the Museum of Modern Art. He was also working on three major commissions during the years 1958 to 1969: murals for the Holyoke Center at Harvard University; monumental paintings for the Four Seasons Restaurant and Seagrams Building, both in New York; and paintings for the Rothko Chapel.

Rothko committed suicide at the age of 66 in 1970. Some think that the dark and somber paintings that he did late in his career, such as those for the Rothko Chapel, foreshadow his suicide, whereas others consider those works an opening up of the spirit and an invitation into greater spiritual awareness.

The Rothko Chapel.
Rothko was commissioned in 1964 by John and Dominique de Menial to create a meditative space filled with his paintings created specifically for the space. The Rothko Chapel, designed in collaboration with architects Philip Johnson, Howard Barnstone, and Eugene Aubry, was ultimately completed in 1971, although Rothko died in 1970 so did not see the final building. It is an irregular octagonal brick building that holds fourteen of Rothko's mural paintings. The paintings are Rothko's signature floating rectangles, although they are darkly hued - seven canvases with hard-edged black rectangles on maroon ground, and seven purple tonal paintings.

It is an interfaith chapel that people visit from all over the world. According to The Rothko Chapel website,"The Rothko Chapel is a spiritual space, a forum for world leaders, a place for solitude and gathering. It’s an epicenter for civil rights activists, a quiet disruption, a stillness that moves. It’s a destination for the 90,000 people of all faiths who visit each year from all parts of the world. It is the home of the Óscar Romero Award." The Rothko Chapel is on the National Register of Historic Places.

Influences on Rothko's Art
There were a number of influences on Rothko's art and thought. As a student in the mid to late 1920s Rothko was influenced by Max Weber, Arshile Gorky, and Milton Avery, from whom he learned very different ways of approaching painting. Weber taught him about Cubism and non-representational painting; Gorky taught him about Surrealism, the imagination, and mythic imagery; and Milton Avery, with whom he was good friends for many years, taught him about using thin layers of flat color to create depth through color relationships.

Like many artists, Rothko also greatly admired Renaissance paintings and their richness of hue and apparent inner glow achieved through the application of multiple layers of thin glazes of color.

As a man of learning, other influences included Goya, Turner, the Impressionists, Matisse, Caspar Friedrich, and others.

Rothko also studied Friedrich Nietzsche, the 19th century German philosopher, and read his book, The Birth of Tragedy.

He incorporated in his paintings Nietzsche's philosophy of the struggle between the Dionysian and Apollonian.

Rothko was also influenced by Michelangelo, Rembrandt, Goya, Turner, the Impressionists, Caspar Friedrich, and Matisse, Manet, Cezanne, to name but a few.

1940s.
The 1940s was an important decade for Rothko, one in which he went through many transformations in style, emerging from it with the classic colorfield paintings that are primarily associated with him. According to his son, Christopher Rothko in MARK ROTHKO, The Decisive Decade 1940-1950, Rothko had five or six different styles in this decade, each one an outgrowth of the preceding one. They are: 1- Figurative (1923-40); 2- Surrealist - Myth-based (1940-43); 3- Surrealist - Abstracted (1943-46); 4- Multiform (1946-48); 5- Transitional (1948-49); 6- Classic/Colorfield (1949-70)."

Sometime in 1940 Rothko makes his last figurative painting, then experiments with Surrealism, and eventually does away entirely with any figural suggestion in his paintings, abstracting them further and paring them down to indeterminate shapes floating in fields of color - Multiforms as they were called by others - which were greatly influenced by Milton Avery's style of painting. The Multiforms are Rothko's first true abstractions, while their palette foreshadows the palette of the color field paintings to come. He clarifies his intention further, eliminating shapes, and begins his color field paintings in 1949, using color even more expressively to create monumental floating rectangles and to communicate the range of human emotion within them.

Color Field Paintings.
Rothko is most well-known for his color field paintings, which he began painting in the late 1940s. These paintings were much larger paintings, almost filling up an entire wall from floor to ceiling. In these paintings he used the soak-stain technique, initially developed by Helen Frankenthaler. He would apply layers of thinned paint onto the canvas to create two or three luminous abstract soft-edged rectangles.

Rothko said that his paintings were large in order to make the viewer part of the experience rather than separate from the painting. In fact, he preferred to have his paintings shown together in an exhibit in order to create a greater impact of being contained or enveloped by the paintings, rather than broken up by other artworks. He said that the paintings were monumentalnot to be "grandiose", but in fact, to be more "intimate and human." According to the Phillips Gallery in Washington, D C, "His large canvases, typical of his mature style, establish a one-on-one correspondence with the viewer, giving human scale to the experience of the painting and intensifying the effects of color. As a result, the paintings produce in the responsive viewer a sense of the ethereal and a state of spiritual contemplation. Through color alone—applied to suspended rectangles within abstract compositions—Rothko's work evokes strong emotions ranging from exuberance and awe to despair and anxiety, suggested by the hovering and indeterminate nature of his forms."

In 1960 the Phillips Gallery built a special room dedicated to displaying Mark Rothko's painting, called The Rothko Room. It contains four paintings by the artist, one painting on each wall of a small room, giving the space a meditative quality.

Rothko stopped giving his works conventional titlesin the late 1940s, preferring instead to differentiate them by color or number. As much as he wrote about art during his lifetime, as in his book, The Artist's Reality: Philosophies on Art, written about 1940-41, he began to stop explaining the meaning of his work with his color field paintings, claiming that "Silence is so accurate."

It is the essence of the relationship between the viewer and the painting that is important, not the words that describe it. Mark Rothko's paintings have to be experienced in person to be truly appreciated.

www.thoughtco.com/mark-rothko-biography-4147374