en-de  Pygmalion by G. B. Shaw-0 Hard
VORWORT ZU PYGMALION
Ein Professor der Phonetik
Wie sich später zeigen wird, braucht Pygmalion kein Vorwort, sondern eine Fortsetzung, die ich an der richtigen Stelle geliefert habe. Die Engländer haben keinen Respekt vor ihrer Sprache und lehnen es ab, ihren Kinder beizubringen, sie zu sprechen. Sie buchstabieren sie so schrecklich, dass niemand sich die Aussprache selbst beibringen kann. Es ist für einen Engländer unmöglich, seinen Mund zu öffnen, ohne irgend einen anderen Engländer dazu zu bringen, ihn zu hassen oder zu verachten. Deutsch und Spanisch sind für Fremde leicht erlernbar: Englisch ist nicht mal für Engländer leicht erlernbar. Der Reformer, den England benötigt, ist ein energischer Phonetik-Enthusiast: daher habe ich einen solchen zum Helden eines populären Stücks gemacht. Es hat schon seit langem solche Helden als "Rufer in der Wildnis" gegeben. Als ich mich gegen Ende der 1870er Jahre für das Thema interessierte, war Melville Bell tot; aber Alexander J. Ellis, einer der Väter, lebte noch, mit einem eindrucksvollen Kopf, der immer mit einem samtenen Scheitelkäppchen bedeckt war, für das er sich bei öffentlichen Veranstaltungen in einer sehr höflichen Art entschuldigte. Er und Tito Pagliardini, ein anderer phonetischer Veteran, waren Männer, die man einfach mögen musste. Henry Sweet, damals ein junger Mann, hatte nicht die charakterliche Anmut: Er war gegenüber gewöhnlichen Sterblichen so konziliant wie Ibsen oder Samuel Butler. Seine große Fähigkeit als Phonetiker (ich denke, er war besser als jeder andere in diesem Bereich) hätte ihn zu höchster offizieller Anerkennung berechtigt und es ihm vielleicht ermöglicht, sein Fachgebiet der Öffentlichkeit nahezubringen, wenn er nicht eine diabolische Verachtung für alle akademischen Würdenträger und Personen im allgemeinen gehabt hätte, denen das Griechische wichtiger war als die Phonetik. Einst, in den Tagen als das Institute des Empire in Kensington entstand und Joseph Chamberlain das Empire zum Blühen brachte, regte ich bei dem Herausgeber einer führenden Monatszeitschrift an, einen Artikel von Sweet über die Bedeutung seines Themas für das Empire in Auftrag zu geben. Als er eintraf, enthielt er nichts anderes als eine drastische, verächtliche Atttacke gegen einen Professor für Sprache und Literatur, dessen Lehrstuhl in den Augen von Sweet nur einem Phonetikexperten zustand. Der Artikel musste, da er ehrenrührig war, als nichtveröffentlichbar zurückgeschickt werden, und ich musste meinen Traum, diesen Autor ans Licht der Öffentlichkeit zu zerren, aufgeben. Als ich ihn später, zum ersten Mal seit vielen Jahren, traf, stellte ich zu meinem Erstaunen fest, dass er, der durchaus ein leidlich ansehnlicher junger Mann gewesen war, es tatsächlich geschafft hatte, sein persönliches Aussehen durch äußerste Verachtung so zu verändern, bis er zu einer Art wandelnder Ablehnung von Oxford und all seinen Traditionen geworden war. Es muss zu einem großen Teil an seiner ihm eigenen Verachtung gelegen haben, dass er irgendwie in etwas gedrängt wurde, was man als eine Professur für Phonetic bezeichnen könnte. Die Zukunft der Phonetik liegt wahrscheinlich bei seinen Schülern, die alle auf ihn schwören; aber nichts konnte den Mann dazu bringen, ihn zu irgendeiner Zustimmung für die Universität zu bringen; an die er sich trotzdem aufgrund göttlichen Rechts in einer intensiven für Oxford typischen Art und Weise klammerte. Ich wage zu behaupten, dass seine Arbeiten, wenn er überhaupt welche hinterlassen hat, einige Satiren umfassen, die, ohne dass es zu destruktiven Ergebnissen in fünfzig Jahren kommt, veröffentlicht werden könnten. Er war, glaube ich, ganz und gar kein bösartiger Mensch; ganz im Gegenteil, denke ich; doch er war gegenüber Dummköpfen nicht wirklich tolerant.
Diejenigen, die ihn kannten, werden in meinem dritten Akt die Anspielung auf die patentierte Stenoschrift erkennen, in der er Postkarten zu schreiben pflegte und welche man sich mittels einem von der Clarendon Press herausgegeben Handbuch, für einen Vierer und sechs Pennys aneigenen kann. Die Postkarten, die Mrs. Higgins beschreibt, sind genau von der Art, wie ich sie von Sweet bekommen habe. I would decipher a sound which a cockney would represent by zerr, and a Frenchman by seu, and then write demanding with some heat what on earth it meant. Sweet, with boundless contempt for my stupidity, would reply that it not only meant but obviously was the word Result, as no other Word containing that sound, and capable of making sense with the context, existed in any language spoken on earth. Dass weniger fachkundige Sterbliche ausführlichere Anhaltspunkte benötigen würden, war für Sweet jenseits seiner Geduld. Therefore, though the whole point of his "Current Shorthand" is that it can express every sound in the language perfectly, vowels as well as consonants, and that your hand has to make no stroke except the easy and current ones with which you write m, n, and u, l, p, and q, scribbling them at whatever angle comes easiest to you, his unfortunate determination to make this remarkable and quite legible script serve also as a Shorthand reduced it in his own practice to the most inscrutable of cryptograms. His true objective was the provision of a full, accurate, legible script for our noble but ill-dressed language; but he was led past that by his contempt for the popular Pitman system of Shorthand, which he called the Pitfall system. The triumph of Pitman was a triumph of business organization: there was a weekly paper to persuade you to learn Pitman: there were cheap textbooks and exercise books and transcripts of speeches for you to copy, and schools where experienced teachers coached you up to the necessary proficiency. Sweet konnte seinen Markt nicht in dieser Art organisieren. He might as well have been the Sybil who tore up the leaves of prophecy that nobody would attend to. The four and six-penny manual, mostly in his lithographed handwriting, that was never vulgarly advertized, may perhaps some day be taken up by a syndicate and pushed upon the public as The Times pushed the Encyclopaedia Britannica; but until then it will certainly not prevail against Pitman. I have bought three copies of it during my lifetime; and I am informed by the publishers that its cloistered existence is still a steady and healthy one. I actually learned the system two several times; and yet the shorthand in which I am writing these lines is Pitman's. Und der Grund ist, dass mein Sekretär Sweet nicht transkribieren kann, und unweigerlich in den Schulen von Pitman unterrichtet worden ist. Therefore, Sweet railed at Pitman as vainly as Thersites railed at Ajax: his raillery, however it may have eased his soul, gave no popular vogue to Current Shorthand. Pygmalion Higgins is not a portrait of Sweet, to whom the adventure of Eliza Doolittle would have been impossible; still, as will be seen, there are touches of Sweet in the play. With Higgins's physique and temperament Sweet might have set the Thames on fire. As it was, he impressed himself professionally on Europe to an extent that made his comparative personal obscurity, and the failure of Oxford to do justice to his eminence, a puzzle to foreign specialists in his subject. I do not blame Oxford, because I think Oxford is quite right in demanding a certain social amenity from its nurslings (heaven knows it is not exorbitant in its requirements! ); for although I well know how hard it is for a man of genius with a seriously underrated subject to maintain serene and kindly relations with the men who underrate it, and who keep all the best places for less important subjects which they profess without originality and sometimes without much capacity for them, still, if he overwhelms them with wrath and disdain, he cannot expect them to heap honors on him.
Of the later generations of phoneticians I know little. Among them towers the Poet Laureate, to whom perhaps Higgins may owe his Miltonic sympathies, though here again I must disclaim all portraiture. But if the play makes the public aware that there are such people as phoneticians, and that they are among the most important people in England at present, it will serve its turn.
I wish to boast that Pygmalion has been an extremely successful play all over Europe and North America as well as at home. It is so intensely and deliberately didactic, and its subject is esteemed so dry, that I delight in throwing it at the heads of the wiseacres who repeat the parrot cry that art should never be didactic. It goes to prove my contention that art should never be anything else.
Finally, and for the encouragement of people troubled with accents that cut them off from all high employment, I may add that the change wrought by Professor Higgins in the flower girl is neither impossible nor uncommon. The modern concierge's daughter who fulfils her ambition by playing the Queen of Spain in Ruy Blas at the Theatre Francais is only one of many thousands of men and women who have sloughed off their native dialects and acquired a new tongue. But the thing has to be done scientifically, or the last state of the aspirant may be worse than the first. An honest and natural slum dialect is more tolerable than the attempt of a phonetically untaught person to imitate the vulgar dialect of the golf club; and I am sorry to say that in spite of the efforts of our Academy of Dramatic Art, there is still too much sham golfing English on our stage, and too little of the noble English of Forbes Robertson.
unit 1
PREFACE TO PYGMALION.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 1 week, 2 days ago
unit 2
A Professor of Phonetics.
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unit 4
The English have no respect for their language, and will not teach their children to speak it.
2 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 1 week, 2 days ago
unit 5
They spell it so abominably that no man can teach himself what it sounds like.
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unit 7
German and Spanish are accessible to foreigners: English is not accessible even to Englishmen.
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unit 9
There have been heroes of that kind crying in the wilderness for many years past.
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unit 11
He and Tito Pagliardini, another phonetic veteran, were men whom it was impossible to dislike.
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unit 23
The postcards which Mrs. Higgins describes are such as I have received from Sweet.
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unit 26
That less expert mortals should require fuller indications was beyond Sweet's patience.
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unit 30
Sweet could not organize his market in that fashion.
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unit 42
Of the later generations of phoneticians I know little.
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unit 47
It goes to prove my contention that art should never be anything else.
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PREFACE TO PYGMALION.
A Professor of Phonetics.
As will be seen later on, Pygmalion needs, not a preface, but a sequel, which I have supplied in its due place. The English have no respect for their language, and will not teach their children to speak it. They spell it so abominably that no man can teach himself what it sounds like. It is impossible for an Englishman to open his mouth without making some other Englishman hate or despise him. German and Spanish are accessible to foreigners: English is not accessible even to Englishmen. The reformer England needs today is an energetic phonetic enthusiast: that is why I have made such a one the hero of a popular play. There have been heroes of that kind crying in the wilderness for many years past. When I became interested in the subject towards the end of the eighteen-seventies, Melville Bell was dead; but Alexander J. Ellis was still a living patriarch, with an impressive head always covered by a velvet skull cap, for which he would apologize to public meetings in a very courtly manner. He and Tito Pagliardini, another phonetic veteran, were men whom it was impossible to dislike. Henry Sweet, then a young man, lacked their sweetness of character: he was about as conciliatory to conventional mortals as Ibsen or Samuel Butler. His great ability as a phonetician (he was, I think, the best of them all at his job) would have entitled him to high official recognition, and perhaps enabled him to popularize his subject, but for his Satanic contempt for all academic dignitaries and persons in general who thought more of Greek than of phonetics. Once, in the days when the Imperial Institute rose in South Kensington, and Joseph Chamberlain was booming the Empire, I induced the editor of a leading monthly review to commission an article from Sweet on the imperial importance of his subject. When it arrived, it contained nothing but a savagely derisive attack on a professor of language and literature whose chair Sweet regarded as proper to a phonetic expert only. The article, being libelous, had to be returned as impossible; and I had to renounce my dream of dragging its author into the limelight. When I met him afterwards, for the first time for many years, I found to my astonishment that he, who had been a quite tolerably presentable young man, had actually managed by sheer scorn to alter his personal appearance until he had become a sort of walking repudiation of Oxford and all its traditions. It must have been largely in his own despite that he was squeezed into something called a Readership of phonetics there. The future of phonetics rests probably with his pupils, who all swore by him; but nothing could bring the man himself into any sort of compliance with the university, to which he nevertheless clung by divine right in an intensely Oxonian way. I daresay his papers, if he has left any, include some satires that may be published without too destructive results fifty years hence. He was, I believe, not in the least an ill-natured man: very much the opposite, I should say; but he would not suffer fools gladly.
Those who knew him will recognize in my third act the allusion to the patent Shorthand in which he used to write postcards, and which may be acquired from a four and six-penny manual published by the Clarendon Press. The postcards which Mrs. Higgins describes are such as I have received from Sweet. I would decipher a sound which a cockney would represent by zerr, and a Frenchman by seu, and then write demanding with some heat what on earth it meant. Sweet, with boundless contempt for my stupidity, would reply that it not only meant but obviously was the word Result, as no other Word containing that sound, and capable of making sense with the context, existed in any language spoken on earth. That less expert mortals should require fuller indications was beyond Sweet's patience. Therefore, though the whole point of his "Current Shorthand" is that it can express every sound in the language perfectly, vowels as well as consonants, and that your hand has to make no stroke except the easy and current ones with which you write m, n, and u, l, p, and q, scribbling them at whatever angle comes easiest to you, his unfortunate determination to make this remarkable and quite legible script serve also as a Shorthand reduced it in his own practice to the most inscrutable of cryptograms. His true objective was the provision of a full, accurate, legible script for our noble but ill-dressed language; but he was led past that by his contempt for the popular Pitman system of Shorthand, which he called the Pitfall system. The triumph of Pitman was a triumph of business organization: there was a weekly paper to persuade you to learn Pitman: there were cheap textbooks and exercise books and transcripts of speeches for you to copy, and schools where experienced teachers coached you up to the necessary proficiency. Sweet could not organize his market in that fashion. He might as well have been the Sybil who tore up the leaves of prophecy that nobody would attend to. The four and six-penny manual, mostly in his lithographed handwriting, that was never vulgarly advertized, may perhaps some day be taken up by a syndicate and pushed upon the public as The Times pushed the Encyclopaedia Britannica; but until then it will certainly not prevail against Pitman. I have bought three copies of it during my lifetime; and I am informed by the publishers that its cloistered existence is still a steady and healthy one. I actually learned the system two several times; and yet the shorthand in which I am writing these lines is Pitman's. And the reason is, that my secretary cannot transcribe Sweet, having been perforce taught in the schools of Pitman. Therefore, Sweet railed at Pitman as vainly as Thersites railed at Ajax: his raillery, however it may have eased his soul, gave no popular vogue to Current Shorthand. Pygmalion Higgins is not a portrait of Sweet, to whom the adventure of Eliza Doolittle would have been impossible; still, as will be seen, there are touches of Sweet in the play. With Higgins's physique and temperament Sweet might have set the Thames on fire. As it was, he impressed himself professionally on Europe to an extent that made his comparative personal obscurity, and the failure of Oxford to do justice to his eminence, a puzzle to foreign specialists in his subject. I do not blame Oxford, because I think Oxford is quite right in demanding a certain social amenity from its nurslings (heaven knows it is not exorbitant in its requirements!); for although I well know how hard it is for a man of genius with a seriously underrated subject to maintain serene and kindly relations with the men who underrate it, and who keep all the best places for less important subjects which they profess without originality and sometimes without much capacity for them, still, if he overwhelms them with wrath and disdain, he cannot expect them to heap honors on him.
Of the later generations of phoneticians I know little. Among them towers the Poet Laureate, to whom perhaps Higgins may owe his Miltonic sympathies, though here again I must disclaim all portraiture. But if the play makes the public aware that there are such people as phoneticians, and that they are among the most important people in England at present, it will serve its turn.
I wish to boast that Pygmalion has been an extremely successful play all over Europe and North America as well as at home. It is so intensely and deliberately didactic, and its subject is esteemed so dry, that I delight in throwing it at the heads of the wiseacres who repeat the parrot cry that art should never be didactic. It goes to prove my contention that art should never be anything else.
Finally, and for the encouragement of people troubled with accents that cut them off from all high employment, I may add that the change wrought by Professor Higgins in the flower girl is neither impossible nor uncommon. The modern concierge's daughter who fulfils her ambition by playing the Queen of Spain in Ruy Blas at the Theatre Francais is only one of many thousands of men and women who have sloughed off their native dialects and acquired a new tongue. But the thing has to be done scientifically, or the last state of the aspirant may be worse than the first. An honest and natural slum dialect is more tolerable than the attempt of a phonetically untaught person to imitate the vulgar dialect of the golf club; and I am sorry to say that in spite of the efforts of our Academy of Dramatic Art, there is still too much sham golfing English on our stage, and too little of the noble English of Forbes Robertson.