en-de  Carnivorous plants Medium
Fleischfressende Pflanzen sind Pflanzen, die Nährstoffe bekommen, indem sie Tiere fangen und auffressen. Sie werden oft Insektenfressende Pflanzen genannt, weil sie normalerweise Insekten fangen. Weil sie einen Teil ihrer Ernährung durch Tiere bekommen, können fleischfressende Pflanzen an Orten wachsen, an denen der Boden dünn ist oder nährstoffarm. Dies trifft zu für Böden mit wenig Stickstoff, wie saure Moore und Felsaufschlüsse. Charles Darwin schrieb 1875 das erste bekannte Buch über fleischfressende Pflanzen.

Diese Fähigkeit von Pflanzen, Tiere zu fangen, ist wahre Fleischfresserei. Es gibt mehr als zwölf Gattungen in fünf Familien. Diese beinhalten ungefähr 625 Arten, die Beute anlocken und fangen, Verdauungsenzyme produzieren und ihre Nährstoffe nutzen. Darüberhinaus gibt es mehr als 300 Arten in diversen Gattungen, die aber nicht alle diese Charakteristika aufweisen. Diese werden üblicherweise protokarnivore Pflanzen genannt.

Fangmechanismen - Insektenfressende Pflanzen haben Blätter, die wie Krüge oder Blasen gebildet werden und Insekten einfangen. Heute sind fünf verschiedene Möglichkeiten des Fangens bekannt: „Fallgruben“ (Kannenpflanzen) fangen Beute in einem gerollten Blatt mit einem Vorrat an Verdauungsenzymen oder Bakterien.

Fliegenfänger verwenden klebrigen Schleim.

Schlagfallen setzen schnelle Blattbewegungen ein.

Wasserschlauch-Pflanzen saugen ihre Beute mit einer Blase an, die in ihrem Inneren ein Vakuum erzeugen kann.

Hummerreusen-Pflanzen zwingen die Beute, sich in Richtung eines Verdauungsorgans mit nach innen gerichteten Haaren zu bewegen.

Diese Fallen werden alle als aktiv oder passiv eingestuft. Triphyophyllum ist eine Liane ( eine Kletterpflanze in tropischen Wäldern). Sie hat drei Blattarten. Wenn nötig, streckt sie lange Blätter aus. Das sind passive 'Fliegenfänger', die den Schleim verbergen. Die Blätter reagieren auf lebende Beute nicht durch Wachsen oder Bewegen. Andererseits ist der Sonnentau ein aktiver Fliegenfänger. Alle Sonnentau-Arten können ihre klebrigen Tentakeln als Reaktion auf einen Kontakt bewegen. Die Tentakeln sind sehr empfindlich und biegen sich zur Mitte des Blattes, um das Insekt mit möglichst vielen Stieldrüsen in Kontakt zu bringen. Gemäß Darwin ist der Kontakt einer kleinen Mücke mit einem einzigen Tentakel genug, um diese Reaktion auszulösen. Dies hilft beim Fangen und Verdauen von Beutetieren.

Die Venusfliegenfalle, Dionaea muscipula, gehört zu einer sehr kleinen Gruppe von Pflanzen, die sich sehr schnell bewegen können. Wenn ein Insekt oder eine Spinne am Blatt entlang krabbelt und ein Härchen berührt, schnappt die Falle nur zu, wenn innerhalb von zwanzig Sekunden danach noch ein anderes Härchen berührt wird. Der Auslöser durch zwei Berührungen vermeidet, Energie auf Objekte ohne Nährwert zu verschwenden.

Grenzfälle - Eine fleischfressende Pflanze muss Beutetiere anlocken, töten und verdauen. Ferner muss sie auch von der Verdauung der Beute profitieren. In den meisten Fällen springen dabei Aminosäuren und Ammonium-Ionen heraus. Es gibt einige Fälle, in denen Pflanzen Beute machen, sie aber nicht verdauen. Sie haben vielmehr eine Symbiose mit einem anderen Organismus, der sich von der Beute ernährt. Einer dieser Fälle ist die Art Roridula-Sonnentau, der eine Symbiose mit der Raub-Wanze bildet. Die Wanzen fressen die gefangenen Insekten. Die Pflanze profitiert von den Nährstoffen im Kot der Wanzen.

Evolution - Wenige fossile fleischfressende Pflanzen wurden gefunden, und dann normalerweise als Samen oder Pollen. Fleischfressende Pflanzen sind in der Regel Kräuter, ohne Holz oder Rinde. Wahre Fleischfresserei hat sich wahrscheinlich unabhängig voneinander mindestens sechs Mal entwickelt.

Manche denken, dass alle Fallentypen eine ähnliche Grundstruktur haben - das haarige Blatt. Haarige Blätter fangen und halten Regentropfen, was das Bakterienwachstum fördert. Insekten landen auf dem Blatt, werden durch die Oberflächenspannung des Wassers erfasst und ersticken. Bakterien fangen an, das Insekt zu zersetzen und Nährstoffe aus der Leiche freizusetzen. Die Pflanze nimmt dann die Nährstoffe durch ihre Blätter auf. Diese 'Blatt-Fütterung' kann bei vielen nicht-fleischfressenden Pflanzen gefunden werden. Pflanzen, die besser darin waren Wasser und Insekten zu halten, hatten deswegen einen selektiven Vorteil. Regenwasser kann durch Schüsselung des Blattes zurückgehalten werden, was zu Fallgruben führt. Alternativ können Insekten gefangen werden, indem das Blatt klebriger gemacht wird, was zu Fliegen-Leimfallen führt.
unit 1
Carnivorous plants are plants which get nutrients from trapping and eating animals.
3 Translations, 4 Upvotes, Last Activity 6 months, 1 week ago
unit 2
They are often called insectivorous plants, because they usually trap insects.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 6 months, 1 week ago
unit 4
This is true for soils with little nitrogen, such as acidic bogs and rock outcrops.
1 Translations, 3 Upvotes, Last Activity 6 months, 1 week ago
unit 5
Charles Darwin wrote the first well-known book on carnivorous plants in 1875.
1 Translations, 3 Upvotes, Last Activity 6 months, 1 week ago
unit 6
This ability of plants to catch animals is true carnivory.
2 Translations, 2 Upvotes, Last Activity 6 months, 1 week ago
unit 7
There are more than twelve genera in five families.
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unit 10
These are usually called protocarnivorous plants.
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unit 13
Flypaper traps use sticky mucilage.
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unit 14
Snap traps use rapid leaf movements.
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unit 15
Bladderworts suck in prey with a bladder that produces an internal vacuum.
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unit 16
Lobster-pot traps force prey to move towards a digestive organ with inward-pointing hairs.
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unit 17
These traps are all classified as active or passive.
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unit 18
Triphyophyllum is a liana (a climber in tropical forests).
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It has three types of leaves.
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When needed, it puts out long leaves.
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These are passive 'flypapers' which hide mucus.
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unit 22
The leaves of the plant do not grow or move as a response to moving prey.
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unit 23
The Sundew Drosera, on the other hand, is an active flypaper.
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unit 27
This helps the catch and digestion of prey.
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unit 28
The Venus flytrap, Dionaea muscipula, is one of a very small group of plants able to move fast.
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unit 30
The two-touch trigger avoids wasting energy on objects with no food value.
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unit 31
Borderline cases A carnivorous plant must attract, kill and digest prey.
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unit 32
It must then also benefit from digesting the prey.
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unit 33
In most cases, this will yield amino acids and ammonium ions.
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unit 34
There are some cases, where plants catch the prey, but they do not digest it.
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unit 35
Rather, they have a symbiosis with another organism, which feeds on the prey.
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One such case is the species of the sundew Roridula, which forms a symbiosis with the assassin bug.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 6 months, 1 week ago
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The bugs eat the trapped insects.
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unit 38
The plant benefits from the nutrients in the bugs' faeces.
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unit 39
Evolution Few fossil carnivorous plants have been found, and then usually as seed or pollen.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 6 months, 1 week ago
unit 40
Carnivorous plants are generally herbs, without wood or bark.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 6 months, 1 week ago
unit 41
True carnivoury has probably evolved independently at least six times.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 6 months, 1 week ago
unit 42
Some think all trap types have a similar basic structure—the hairy leaf.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 6 months, 1 week ago
unit 43
Hairy leaves do catch and hold drops of rainwater, which helps bacterial growth.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 6 months, 1 week ago
unit 44
Insects land on the leaf, are caught by the surface tension of the water, and suffocate.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 6 months, 1 week ago
unit 45
Bacteria start to decay the insect, and release nutrients from the corpse.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 6 months, 1 week ago
unit 46
The plant then absorbs the nutrients through its leaves.
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unit 47
This 'leaf feeding' can be found in many non-carnivorous plants.
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unit 48
Plants that were better at holding water and insects therefore had a selective advantage.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 6 months, 1 week ago
unit 49
Rainwater can be retained by cupping the leaf, leading to pitfall traps.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 6 months, 1 week ago
unit 50
Alternatively, insects can be caught by making the leaf stickier, leading to flypaper traps.
1 Translations, 1 Upvotes, Last Activity 6 months, 1 week ago
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Carnivorous plants are plants which get nutrients from trapping and eating animals. They are often called insectivorous plants, because they usually trap insects. Since they get some of their food from animals, carnivorous plants can grow in places where the soil is thin, or poor in nutrients. This is true for soils with little nitrogen, such as acidic bogs and rock outcrops. Charles Darwin wrote the first well-known book on carnivorous plants in 1875.

This ability of plants to catch animals is true carnivory. There are more than twelve genera in five families. These include about 625 species that attract and trap prey, produce digestive enzymes, and use their nutrients. In addition, there are more than 300 species in several genera that show some but not all of these characteristics. These are usually called protocarnivorous plants.

Trapping mechanisms
Insectivorous plants have leaves that are made like pitchers or bladders which catch insects. Today, five different ways of trapping are known

Pitfall traps (pitcher plants) trap prey in a rolled leaf that has a pool of digestive enzymes or bacteria.

Flypaper traps use sticky mucilage.

Snap traps use rapid leaf movements.

Bladderworts suck in prey with a bladder that produces an internal vacuum.

Lobster-pot traps force prey to move towards a digestive organ with inward-pointing hairs.

These traps are all classified as active or passive. Triphyophyllum is a liana (a climber in tropical forests). It has three types of leaves. When needed, it puts out long leaves. These are passive 'flypapers' which hide mucus. The leaves of the plant do not grow or move as a response to moving prey. The Sundew Drosera, on the other hand, is an active flypaper. All species of Sundew are able to move their sticky tentacles in response to a contact. The tentacles are very sensitive and will bend toward the center of the leaf in order to bring the insect into contact with as many stalked glands as possible. According to Darwin, the touch of legs of a small gnat with a single tentacle is enough to cause this response. This helps the catch and digestion of prey.

The Venus flytrap, Dionaea muscipula, is one of a very small group of plants able to move fast. When an insect or spider crawls along the leaves and touches a hair, the trap closes only if a different hair is contacted within twenty seconds of the first touch. The two-touch trigger avoids wasting energy on objects with no food value.

Borderline cases

A carnivorous plant must attract, kill and digest prey. It must then also benefit from digesting the prey. In most cases, this will yield amino acids and ammonium ions. There are some cases, where plants catch the prey, but they do not digest it. Rather, they have a symbiosis with another organism, which feeds on the prey. One such case is the species of the sundew Roridula, which forms a symbiosis with the assassin bug. The bugs eat the trapped insects. The plant benefits from the nutrients in the bugs' faeces.

Evolution

Few fossil carnivorous plants have been found, and then usually as seed or pollen. Carnivorous plants are generally herbs, without wood or bark. True carnivoury has probably evolved independently at least six times.

Some think all trap types have a similar basic structure—the hairy leaf. Hairy leaves do catch and hold drops of rainwater, which helps bacterial growth. Insects land on the leaf, are caught by the surface tension of the water, and suffocate. Bacteria start to decay the insect, and release nutrients from the corpse. The plant then absorbs the nutrients through its leaves. This 'leaf feeding' can be found in many non-carnivorous plants. Plants that were better at holding water and insects therefore had a selective advantage. Rainwater can be retained by cupping the leaf, leading to pitfall traps. Alternatively, insects can be caught by making the leaf stickier, leading to flypaper traps.